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Typologie des problèmes dans les sociétés : problèmes techniques et problèmes adaptatifs

2000






Ronald HEIFETZ, professeur à l’Ecole d’administration J.F.Kennedy (Université de Harvard), distingue deux types fondamentaux de problèmes rencontrés par les sociétés : les problèmes techniques et les problèmes d’adaptation.

1. Les problèmes techniques, tels que les catastrophes naturelles, ont déjà été résolus dans le passé. Pour résoudre ce type de problèmes, une société a besoin d’une approche autoritaire et directive, où chacun connaît la procédure à suivre, même dans le cas de situations particulièrement compliquées.

2. Les problèmes « adaptatifs » ou « d’adaptation » sont ceux que la société n’a jamais encore résolu. Quand il s’agit de résoudre ce type de problèmes, une approche directive ne fonctionne pas. Leur résolution exige au contraire la collaboration de tous les acteurs sociaux, qui doivent inventer ensemble la solution. Elle fait souvent intervenir des champs d’action généralement cloisonnés. On peut citer comme exemples les questions d’environnement, de santé, etc.

Selon Ronald HEIFETZ, le management nécessaire pour résoudre les problèmes de type technique est fondamentalement différent de celui qui convient aux problèmes adaptatifs. Or, même lorsque nous attendons de nos dirigeants qu’ils résolvent un problème adaptatif, ils prennent des mesures d’ordre technique : décisions unilatérales, directives, règlements…

Des leaders adaptatifs devraient au contraire savoir faciliter le dialogue social et ainsi permettre à la société d’apporter sa réponse.

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Pour une nouvelle approche du développement, centrée sur l’homme

2000



Dans son discours, l’intervenant tire les enseignements de son intervention auprès de la République du Kirghizitan, menée la fin des années 90 pour élaborer un programme de développement. Quelques points clefs à retenir: la nécessité de 1) considérer les pays non pas comme des marchés émergents mais comme des sociétés émergentes; 2) faire naitre la subsidiarité avant de définir le projet; 3) appréhender le développement comme un problème complexe d’adaptation et non pas comme un problème technique.




Nous nous préparons à connaître au cours des prochaines décennies un véritable bouleversement de la démographie mondiale : en 2010, 1 milliard d’hommes sur Terre auront moins de 30 ans ; parmi eux, 90% vivront dans des pays où, aujourd’hui déjà, on ne trouve pas de travail. A travers les médias, ils sauront en revanche comment vivent leurs cousins des pays développés. Dans ce contexte, à moins de réagir rapidement, il me paraît totalement illusoire de penser que nous pourrons conserver longtemps notre mode de vie actuel, sans crises sociales ou politiques majeures.

Nous devons dépasser notre conception des pays en développement comme des marchés émergents : ce sont des sociétés émergentes. Définissons donc une nouvelle forme d’assistance, active, qui contribue à mettre en place des institutions – et des leaders – capables de travailler ensemble pour répondre aux problèmes qu’affrontent leurs pays. Des problèmes, comme le chômage, dont la résolution appelle la participation d’acteurs nombreux, privés, publics et associatifs.

La tâche n’est pas aisée ; pourtant, continuer de fournir une aide purement technique sans la renforcer ne mène probablement qu’à l’échec. Quels progrès seraient réalisés, si 2% des fonds d’assistance à ces pays servaient à former leurs leaders à la conduite du changement…

En juin 1999, j’ai signé un contrat avec la Banque Asiatique de Développement (BAD). Il s’agissait, avec une équipe de consultants internationaux, de rédiger un cahier des charges portant sur l’emploi par le Kirghizistan d’un prêt de 24 millions de dollars.

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