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La gestion des ressources humaines dans les territoires, une réflexion de longue haleine

2006



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur reprend l’histoire, l’organisation et la conduite des réflexions du groupe de Toulouse, véritable cheminement d’une préoccupation commune pour l’entrepreneuriat en milieu rural vers l’approfondissement des conditions et moyens d’une bonne gouvernance territoriale, en particulier en matière de gestion des ressources humaines dans les territoires…




C’est autour de Raymond LACOMBE, président fondateur de Sol et Civilisation, que s’est constitué ce qu’on appelle le « groupe de Toulouse » parce que ce groupe a été accueilli à Toulouse par l’Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture de Purpan et par son directeur de l’époque, Pierre TAPIE.

Se réunissant à Toulouse à partir de 2001, le groupe de réflexion s’est donc composé pour l’essentiel de personnes travaillant en Midi-Pyrénées et se reconnaissant dans la double mouvance du développement territorial rural et de la pensée de Raymond LACOMBE, leader agricole charismatique, trop vite disparu en février 2002. C’est au demeurant celui-ci, qui a assuré avec énergie et dynamisme la véritable animation du groupe, autour d’un sujet qui lui était cher : « entreprendre en milieu rural ».

Les participants à cette réflexion étaient issus des institutions agricoles mais aussi de l’appui au développement et de la formation. Le groupe a auditionné diverses expériences de terrain et s’est progressivement forgé une logique commune exposée au cours d’un colloque qui s’est tenu à l’ESA Purpan en novembre 2001 et dont les principales conclusions ont été rapportées dans la lettre de Sol et Civilisation n°22 et au cours des assises nationales de septembre 2002.

La conclusion essentielle de ces travaux était de mettre le projecteur sur ce qui semblait le principal obstacle au fait d’entreprendre en milieu rural, à savoir le cloisonnement et les disfonctionnements entre les acteurs (entreprises, associations, élus). Le développement économique en milieu rural n’est pas seulement une question d’opportunités ou de positionnement judicieux mais également le fruit d’une bonne gouvernance territoriale.

Après une période de transition, le groupe de Toulouse s’est remis au travail. Dans la continuité des réflexions antérieures, il a semblé opportun de creuser plus particulièrement une question qui se pose aujourd’hui de manière cruciale aux acteurs ruraux, celle de la gestion des ressources humaines dans le territoire.

Pour mettre en œuvre cette réflexion, le groupe dit « de Toulouse » s’est ouvert à d’autres membres et a reconduit sa méthode : auditions d’experts et témoignages, travaux collectifs, publications. Vous trouverez dans les pages suivantes le fruit de cette première phase d’investigation : un article introductif situe l’intérêt de cette question, trois exemples en illustrent des aspects différents et un dernier article en tire les enseignements préliminaires.

A l’heure où la concurrence entre territoires est de plus en plus forte, au moment où le monde se complexifie davantage chaque jour, la richesse humaine des milieux ruraux constitue, à n’en point douter, une force de premier plan pour ces territoires s’ils souhaitent vivre et se développer. Il serait vain de croire pourtant que ce potentiel humain se maintient de lui-même. La rapidité des changements, la plasticité des évolutions font qu’il faut sans cesse s’adapter. Là encore, la réponse semble se trouver dans l’émergence d’une gouvernance adaptée associant les différents acteurs.

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« Projet de territoire » : définition de termes

2002



Dans cet encart, l’auteur éclaire la distinction entre trois expressions courantes pour évoquer le territoire : projet de territoire, territoire de projets, territoire de programmation.




Le projet de territoire est la manière actuelle (loi Voynet) de présenter la nécessité d’une réflexion stratégique cadrant et dynamisant les projets professionnels.

Ces projets s’exercent sur des territoires (territoire de projets) qui ne coïncident pas avec ce projet de territoire, d’où l’idée de « géométrie variable » car la vie économique ne coïncide ni avec la dimension sociologique, ni avec la dimension administrative.

La programmation introduit une complication supplémentaire en générant des cloisonnements administratifs, sectoriels, financiers (territoire de programmation).

Ainsi, un dossier de développement des Pyrénées Atlantiques concernera un projet de territoire (par exemple La Soûle) mais aussi un territoire de projet interdépartemental et transvalléen (les Pyrénées Centrales) et des clivages liés à la programmation sectorielle (par exemple l’agriculture), à l’aspect administratif (par exemple le canton) et à la ligne budgétaire (tel type de crédit).

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Le développement territorial : petite ou grande histoire ?

2002



Dans cet article, l’auteur revient sur l’émergence et l’affirmation du concept de développement territorial depuis le milieu du XXème siècle. De l’aménagement du territoire, au développement territorial en passant par l’action locale, il souligne les acquis successifs qui permettent de mieux préciser les enjeux et les défis à relever en ce début de XXIème siècle.




Aménagement et développement local, une histoire dominée par les changements structurels de la France et de l’Europe.

Première partie : De la reconstruction à l’écroulement de l’économie traditionnelle

Cette phase peut se scinder en trois périodes. De 1947 à 1968, […] le développement territorial n’existe pas, le rural hors agricole est l’espace restant et l’agriculture devient le pilier des exportations. De 1968 à 1975, […] émerge une forte résistance du monde rural et une montée des problèmes des problèmes urbains (chômage, choc pétrolier, contrat de pays, conservatoire du littoral). De 1975 à 1981, […] la montée des terroirs apparait sous cet aspect autant comme un refuge que comme une véritable alternative.

Deuxième partie: Les territoires à l’épreuve des problèmes économiques (de 1981 à 2000).

De 1981 à 1987, […] le projet de territoire s’efface derrière les territoires de projet et le local doit gérer socialement la déprise économique et humaine. De 987 à 1995, […] le « local » se cherche avec l’atténuation du clivage urbain/rural. De 1995 à aujourd’hui, […] le pays devient un échelon reconnu de concertation et d’émergence confronté à l’organisation d’un pouvoir intercommunal naissant.

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