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Pour des territoires ruraux vivants et entreprenants, des hommes acteurs et responsables

2003



Dans cet article, l’auteur développe les trois dimensions essentielles pour une relance du développement des territoires ruraux : favoriser les relations des hommes entre eux, la vie économique des territoires mais aussi la vie locale et l’organisation des territoires. Il s’agit in fine de trouver les conditions d’application d’une réelle subsidiarité.




En premier lieu, il nous paraît fondamental de réaffirmer que dans le contexte du XXIe siècle, la réussite d’une politique en faveur des territoires ruraux tient essentiellement au fait de reconnaître et d’assumer dans ses conséquences le principe que l’homme est l’acteur central de tout développement territorial durable.

Notre société française, comme beaucoup de sociétés industrialisées, vit sous le signe d’une triple rupture ; rupture interne du milieu rural avec des zones équilibrées économiquement et socialement et d’autres, nombreuses, en voie de dépérissement ; rupture interne du milieu urbain matérialisée par l’éclatement entre les centres villes et les banlieues qui deviennent souvent des ghettos d’exclusion ; et rupture du dialogue et de la connaissance entre milieux ruraux et milieux urbains.

Pour redonner chance à la société française, il faut une forte volonté de rééquilibrage pour effacer ces trois ruptures. Le territoire est un tout et c’est en tant que tel qu’il faut réapprendre à le gérer. Milieux ruraux et milieux urbains doivent se nourrir les uns les autres par un dialogue constructif.

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Vive l’innovation territoriale !

2009



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur nous invite à donner une dimension nouvelle au territoire. Certes il est un espace incontournable de rencontre et le socle d’un développement fondé sur la mise en mouvement des hommes, mais il peut aussi être le creuset de l’innovation pour mieux agir ensemble…




Crise énergétique, gestion des ressources naturelles, biodiversité, réchauffement climatique, les espaces ruraux sont chaque jour interpellés par les nouveaux défis écologiques planétaires et doivent répondre, surtout en Europe, à des attentes sociétales de plus en plus pressantes. Parallèlement, leur attractivité nouvelle mais également l’ouverture des marchés, notamment agricoles, modifient en profondeur les moteurs de leur économie. Les activités des services et plus largement l’économie résidentielle deviennent ainsi prépondérantes dans certaines régions alors même que les filières agricoles doivent trouver partout des ressorts de compétitivité et d’innovation. Pourtant, si la ruralité a toujours connu le mouvement, la rapidité des évolutions actuelles lui demande aujourd’hui un effort d’adaptation sans précédant.

Depuis plusieurs années, le territoire apparaît comme un levier pertinent pour répondre à cette nouvelle donne où se déploient la globalisation des enjeux et la mondialisation marchande. La politique des Pays, les Pôles d’excellence rurale, les Pôles de compétitivité, les programmes Leader européens confirment ainsi l’intérêt des pouvoirs publics pour les dynamiques locales où se mobilisent l’ensemble des volontés. Nous défendons à Sol et Civilisation cette approche territoriale du développement tant elle permet l’intégration des problématiques et la mise en mouvement des hommes. Notre dernier Cahier, paru ce printemps, reprend cette question et montre combien le territoire, notamment en milieu rural, reste effectivement l’un des meilleurs vecteurs de développement, pour peu que l’on considère le développement comme la capacité à progresser ensemble pour prendre en charge de manière coordonnée et cohérente un ensemble de problèmes hétérogènes.

La complexification des enjeux, l’emboîtement des échelons de décision, la multiplication des parties prenantes demandent néanmoins aujourd’hui aux acteurs d’accomplir un saut qualitatif dans la construction de leurs réponses tant individuelles que collectives. Le territoire ne peut plus en effet se limiter à un espace de rencontre et d’élaboration de projets transversaux, il doit être désormais davantage le creuset de l’innovation, qu’elle soit technique ou organisationnelle, pour mieux agir ensemble, anticiper et créer des nouvelles valeurs économiques, sociales et environnementales.

Pour éclairer ce débat, nous avons organisé début juin avec le Groupe Monde Rural une matinée de débat et d’échanges. Cette Lettre reprend pour partie les points de vue et les témoignages qui s’y sont exprimés, que nous complétons avec la présentation d’une démarche territoriale remarquable au Luxembourg dans la commune de Beckerich.

La ruralité montre encore une fois qu’elle reste inventive et porteuse de solutions nouvelles. Dans cette période de crise où il faut se réinventer, les territoires ruraux restent certainement les meilleurs alliés pour rebondir et contribuer à construire de nouveaux équilibres. Nous reprendrons et élargirons ce débat lors de nos prochaines assises, le 15 octobre prochain.

D’ici là, je vous souhaite une bonne lecture et un bon été.

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Agriculture, biodiversité et territoires

2011






2010 fut l’année mondiale de la biodiversité.

Sa protection est aujourd’hui reconnue comme un enjeu majeur pour l’ensemble de l’Humanité et un révélateur de la capacité de notre civilisation à répondre en plus des nôtres, aux besoins d’autres espèces. L’immense défi que nous devons tous relever consiste à proposer ensemble un projet de développement équilibré.

À notre échelle, Sol et Civilisation vous propose, dans cette Lettre, d’explorer la thématique de la biodiversité, de l’agriculture et du développement durable, ses leviers et enjeux. Pour ce faire, vous trouverez un article de Raphaël Larrere, sociologue et agronome qui s’intitule « Place de l’agriculture, entre nature et culture ». Cet article développe l’exposé donné lors d’une soirée débat en Mayenne et que nous avons eu plaisir à co-organiser avec nos partenaires locaux en novembre dernier sur le couple « agriculture-nature ».

Vous trouverez également une contribution de Bernard Chevassus-au-Louis, Inspecteur Général de l’Agriculture sur «la biodiversité, l’agriculture et le développement durable ». Gérard Hanus, Directeur du Parc Naturel Régional de Chartreuse formule pour sa part, une vision territoriale de cette problématique en réinterrogeant plus globalement l’outil PNR. Vous pourrez également lire la synthèse des dernières Assises de Sol et Civilisation. En outre, nous vous proposons de découvrir une nouvelle rubrique intitulée « Les tribunes libres » de Gérard de Caffarelli et de Michel Ménard. L’un et l’autre sont profondément liés à Sol et Civilisation pour avoir participé à la création de l’Association et pour l’avoir accompagnée. Leurs éclairages nous permettent d’aller plus loin sans négliger nos fondements.

À l’issue de cette lecture, nous vous invitons d’ores et déjà à réserver la date du 29 septembre 2011 pour les prochaines Assises de Sol et Civilisation. Elle correspond à la date anniversaire des 20 ans de l’Association et sera l’occasion pour nous tous de poser un regard sur nos actions et nos propositions tout en mettant en perspective les évolutions des territoires ruraux.

Ce numéro est le premier de l’année que vous recevez de Sol et Civilisation, aussi au nom de toute l’équipe de Sol et Civilisation, j’en profite pour vous souhaiter à tous une excellente année 2011.

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