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Une volonté : faire vivre le territoire et les acteurs du Comté

2000






La subsidiarité

Chaque type d’acteurs assume pleinement sa fonction au sein de la filière (production, transformation, affinage, vente) et prend part à la gestion de l’ensemble. L’outil commun dont ils se sont dotés, gère la filière au mieux de leurs intérêts.

Les avantages

Chaque acteur est en position d’assumer ses responsabilités et d’innover. La prise en compte des demandes des partenaires, des clients, la prospective deviennent possibles.

Tous participent à la gestion en bien commun de leur produit et du développement du territoire de production du Comté.

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La filière Comté : au service des hommes qui en vivent

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur présente l’expérience de la filière Comté et explique comment l’organisation des acteurs locaux favorise tout à la fois la sécurité économique de la filière, une démarche qualité vis à vis des productions, mais aussi une prise en compte plus fine de l’environnement et des demandes du consommateur.




La zone de production du Comté se situe à cheval sur les départements du Doubs et du Jura. Cette production se caractérise par le grand nombre de coopératives de fabrication, les fruitières, et par l’organisation ascendante de la filière.

En Comté, depuis longtemps, producteurs et affineurs ont réfléchi et jugé utile de s’organiser pour gérer au mieux un produit qui se vendait, et qui se vend toujours, bien. On impose souvent aux producteurs des mesures depuis Paris ou Bruxelles. Ici, c’est le terrain qui a alerté le national, en demandant qu’une interprofession soit créée pour défendre les intérêts d’un produit et des hommes qui en vivent. Le CIGC (Comité Interprofessionnel du Gruyère de Comté) a ainsi vu le jour en 1963 à la demande des producteurs et des affineurs.

Les producteurs de lait à Comté élèvent uniquement des vaches de la race Montbéliarde. Les conditions de production du Comté sont précises. Elles sont inscrites dans une Charte. Une vache laitière doit disposer d’un hectare de pâtures. L’ensilage est interdit. Les vaches doivent être nourries à 80% avec du foin. Ces contraintes ont leur intérêt : elles nous permettent d’occuper le territoire et de conserver la typicité du produit dans son goût. Sans elles, la zone serait beaucoup moins peuplée et plus boisée qu’elle ne l’est aujourd’hui.

Une organisation ascendante

La filière est organisée de la base vers le haut. Les producteurs, les représentants des coopératives et les industriels ont naturellement un poids important dans la gestion du devenir de l’AOC.

Au sein du CIGC, plusieurs commissions fonctionnent. L’aspect économique n’arrive qu’en 3ème position. Car avant de parler économie, il faut faire valoir le produit et informer les producteurs des conséquences de tels ou tels schémas de production, de telle ou telle décision. On ne traite qu’ensuite les questions économiques et techniques. Bien que la production du Comté soit très réglementée, les techniques de production, comme les complémentations de l’alimentation des vaches laitières, évoluent. Le CIGC produit donc un courrier saisonnier dans lequel les consignes techniques et les évolutions de la Charte liées à des aléas de production sont décrites.

Certes les producteurs respectent le cahier des charges mis en place par le CIGC, validé par l’Etat. Mais l’autodiscipline provient d’abord du respect mutuel entre producteurs qui se côtoient au sein des fruitières. Le premier souci d’un producteur de lait à Comté qui trait ses vaches est de produire un fromage consommable, bon et qui reflète sa région.

Au sein de la fruitière, nous faisons ensemble la paie du lait à la fin de chaque mois, en fonction du résultat des ventes des produits. Celui qui, autour de la table, est responsable d’une dérive quelconque de la fabrication fromagère, est la cause même d’une baisse de revenu des autres adhérents de la fruitière. L’autodiscipline joue pleinement !

Des conséquences positives pour la région

Je suis producteur coopérant dans une fruitière avec 6 autres agriculteurs. Ensemble, nous employons un fromager et son épouse. Pour valoriser le sérum, la fruitière a une porcherie avec 500 porcs à l’engrais. Nous créons de l’emploi et occupons le territoire. Ce schéma de production est typique des 191 fruitières. Les conditions de production du lait à Comté permettent ainsi de faire vivre des communes de 200 ou 300 habitants, autour et avec leur agriculture. Beaucoup d’agriculteurs font partie des conseils municipaux. Dans mon canton, la mise en œuvre de l’assainissement rencontre des freins. Au sein de notre fruitière, nous avons pris les devants et avons décidé de créer une mini-station d’épuration pour traiter les eaux usées de notre fromagerie. Les habitations environnantes en bénéficient. Nous avons assuré la plus grande partie du financement, avec quelques aides départementales et régionales. Nous avons fait valoir notre capacité à innover, à respecter notre environnement et avons mis ceux qui ont des responsabilités politiques au pied du mur.

Autre conséquence : la race montbéliarde est aujourd’hui reconnue au niveau mondial. Une filière parallèle à celle du Comté s’est développée qui elle-même crée de l’emploi.

Des producteurs à l’écoute de leur environnement

Nous avons tous intérêt, quel que soit le secteur dans lequel nous évoluons, à prendre en compte l’univers dans lequel nous vivons, à essayer de respecter la demande et les engagements des uns et des autres. Une organisation comme celle de la filière Comté le permet. Je souhaiterais pouvoir rencontrer n’importe quel autre citoyen français et lui dire : « je produis un produit noble, j’apprécie le produit du voisin et je suis aussi rassuré que le consommateur. » La logique du Comté, c’est aussi celle-là. Le CIGC est actuellement en pleine réflexion sur l’utilisation de produits contenant des OGM dans les compléments d’alimentation des troupeaux. Les producteurs y participent largement.

Depuis quelques mois, beaucoup de débats portent sur le prix des produits achetés par les consommateurs. Nous, producteurs de Comté, sommes un peu préservés de ces questions. En effet, depuis toujours, notre produit se négocie et se vend entre acteurs locaux. Nous n’avons pas directement affaire à la grande distribution. Notre ambition est d’accompagner le produit le plus loin possible pour le faire valoir. Car en restant maîtres de nos outils de production, de transformation et de commercialisation, nous nous préservons d’un risque d’intégration par certaines chaînes de distribution. Ce risque est réel.

Si nous avons réussi à nous adapter aux quotas laitiers en 1984, c’est qu’au sein du CIGC, nous avions réfléchi et prévu cette évolution. De la même façon, nous essayons de devancer la mise aux normes des ateliers de fabrication. Nous avons ainsi su sauvegarder notre authenticité que nous espérons faire valoir encore longtemps.

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