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Le regard d’un géographe sur le rural aujourd’hui

2014



Comment la sociologie aborde les sociétés rurales ?




Comment percevez-vous l’espace rural ?

En Europe l’espace rural n’est pas homogène, plusieurs réalités coexistent. On peut trouver d’abord des espaces à dominante agricole structurés par un modèle de développement dont les composantes demeurent essentiellement agraires (droit de propriété, rythmes sociaux, valeurs, etc.). Dans ces espaces, la fonctionnalité territoriale reste exclusivement agricole. La question du devenir des autres acteurs et des autres fonctions de l’espace (récréatives, etc.) est alors posée. Ainsi, on comprend que le devenir de ces territoires est très lié à celui de l’agriculture et des agriculteurs. D’autres types d’espace rural possèdent une dominante industrielle et agricole en raison de localisation de nombreuses activités manufacturières en milieu rural, ce qui structure les emplois (les ouvriers vivent majoritairement en milieu rural) ainsi qu’une partie de l’histoire de ces territoires. Par conséquent, il n’existe pas une seule ruralité en Europe. La réalité est beaucoup plus diversifiée que ce que nous pouvons en dire.

En France, il existe aussi plusieurs réalités rurales.

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Pour une nouvelle approche du développement, centrée sur l’homme

2000



Dans son discours, l’intervenant tire les enseignements de son intervention auprès de la République du Kirghizitan, menée la fin des années 90 pour élaborer un programme de développement. Quelques points clefs à retenir: la nécessité de 1) considérer les pays non pas comme des marchés émergents mais comme des sociétés émergentes; 2) faire naitre la subsidiarité avant de définir le projet; 3) appréhender le développement comme un problème complexe d’adaptation et non pas comme un problème technique.




Nous nous préparons à connaître au cours des prochaines décennies un véritable bouleversement de la démographie mondiale : en 2010, 1 milliard d’hommes sur Terre auront moins de 30 ans ; parmi eux, 90% vivront dans des pays où, aujourd’hui déjà, on ne trouve pas de travail. A travers les médias, ils sauront en revanche comment vivent leurs cousins des pays développés. Dans ce contexte, à moins de réagir rapidement, il me paraît totalement illusoire de penser que nous pourrons conserver longtemps notre mode de vie actuel, sans crises sociales ou politiques majeures.

Nous devons dépasser notre conception des pays en développement comme des marchés émergents : ce sont des sociétés émergentes. Définissons donc une nouvelle forme d’assistance, active, qui contribue à mettre en place des institutions – et des leaders – capables de travailler ensemble pour répondre aux problèmes qu’affrontent leurs pays. Des problèmes, comme le chômage, dont la résolution appelle la participation d’acteurs nombreux, privés, publics et associatifs.

La tâche n’est pas aisée ; pourtant, continuer de fournir une aide purement technique sans la renforcer ne mène probablement qu’à l’échec. Quels progrès seraient réalisés, si 2% des fonds d’assistance à ces pays servaient à former leurs leaders à la conduite du changement…

En juin 1999, j’ai signé un contrat avec la Banque Asiatique de Développement (BAD). Il s’agissait, avec une équipe de consultants internationaux, de rédiger un cahier des charges portant sur l’emploi par le Kirghizistan d’un prêt de 24 millions de dollars.

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Pour des territoires ruraux vivants et entreprenants, des hommes acteurs et responsables

2003



Dans cet article, l’auteur développe les trois dimensions essentielles pour une relance du développement des territoires ruraux : favoriser les relations des hommes entre eux, la vie économique des territoires mais aussi la vie locale et l’organisation des territoires. Il s’agit in fine de trouver les conditions d’application d’une réelle subsidiarité.




En premier lieu, il nous paraît fondamental de réaffirmer que dans le contexte du XXIe siècle, la réussite d’une politique en faveur des territoires ruraux tient essentiellement au fait de reconnaître et d’assumer dans ses conséquences le principe que l’homme est l’acteur central de tout développement territorial durable.

Notre société française, comme beaucoup de sociétés industrialisées, vit sous le signe d’une triple rupture ; rupture interne du milieu rural avec des zones équilibrées économiquement et socialement et d’autres, nombreuses, en voie de dépérissement ; rupture interne du milieu urbain matérialisée par l’éclatement entre les centres villes et les banlieues qui deviennent souvent des ghettos d’exclusion ; et rupture du dialogue et de la connaissance entre milieux ruraux et milieux urbains.

Pour redonner chance à la société française, il faut une forte volonté de rééquilibrage pour effacer ces trois ruptures. Le territoire est un tout et c’est en tant que tel qu’il faut réapprendre à le gérer. Milieux ruraux et milieux urbains doivent se nourrir les uns les autres par un dialogue constructif.

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Quelle place pour les territoires ruraux ?

2003



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose une grille de lecture pour guider l’évolution de la place des territoires ruraux dans les équilibres de société. Pour répondre pleinement à leurs trois fonctions économique, naturel et résidentielle, il s’agit d’accompagner l’évolution des relations ville-campagne mais aussi l’organisation des territoires ruraux eux-mêmes, en particulier au niveau de la commune et des pays.




Les ruraux ont besoin d’un message […] fort, clair et cohérent pour se situer dans un monde qui se cherche de nouveaux modes de vivre ensemble. L’avenir des territoires ruraux dépend de l’articulation qui sera trouvée entre les trois fonctions principales que la société du XXIe siècle attend de ses campagnes :

  • un espace économique à valoriser,

  • un espace naturel à protéger,

  • un espace résidentiel à aménager.

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L’innovation agricole et les politiques régionales en Ile-de-France

2007



Dans son discours, l’auteur rappelle la dimension agricole et rurale de la région Ile-de-France, tant sur le plan géographique qu’économique. Dès lors pour le président de la région Ile-de-France, l’enjeu est d’accompagner l’agriculture et l’espace rural pour conduire l’innovation nécessaire face aux défis de compétitivité, pour créer de nouvelles valeurs ajoutées, pour protéger les espaces naturels mais aussi maintenir des territoires vivants.




Je crois qu’on n’associe pas tellement l’Ile-de-France à l’agriculture. En général il y a d’autres images qui viennent à l’esprit, d’autres couleurs que le vert. Pourtant, c’est vrai que l’Ile-de-France est une région très urbanisée, la plus urbanisée, c’est vrai que c’est une région industrielle, une des plus industrielle, une région de services aussi, des services financiers par exemple. C’est une terre de recherche aussi, elle compte 45% des chercheurs du pays et concentre l’essentiel des grands centres de recherche. C’est une terre de patrimoine immobilier très important. Il y a 25 millions de mètres carrés de bureaux en Ile-de-France, c’est la première surface immobilière de bureaux ! Cette année, la région accueillera plus d’entreprises étrangères que Londres.
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Les transformations des campagnes françaises au début du XXIe siècle

2005



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose en trois temps de reconsidérer les campagnes et d’éclairer leurs transformations. Peut-on encore parler de ruralité ou ne faut-il pas plutôt considérer les ruralités d’aujourd’hui pour décrire les dynamiques des espaces ruraux? L’auteur décrypte ensuite les 7 ruptures qui conduisent selon lui à la recomposition leurs recompositions autour de trois dimensions : agricole, résidentielle et naturelle. Pour assurer un développement local de ces territoires ruraux, il s’agit dès lors de prendre en charge cette recomposition à travers quatre défis.




A la fin du XXe siècle, le monde rural français comptait un peu plus de 13 millions d’habitants, c’est à peu près le même que celui de la France de 1960. Cependant, en 1962, le chiffre de 13 millions d’habitants représentait 30 % de la population française alors qu’aujourd’hui il n’en représente plus que 23 %, la France ayant gagné 10 millions d’habitants au cours de cette période.

Ruralité et Ruralités

13 millions d’habitants, c’est l’aboutissement du grand mouvement séculaire d’exode rural qui naît autour de la décennie 1860-1870 ; à un moment où 80 % de la population française vivait en milieu rural. Derrière ce chiffre se cachent quatre dynamiques démographiques qui correspondent à quatre espaces ruraux bien distincts.

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Le développement territorial : petite ou grande histoire ?

2002



Dans cet article, l’auteur revient sur l’émergence et l’affirmation du concept de développement territorial depuis le milieu du XXème siècle. De l’aménagement du territoire, au développement territorial en passant par l’action locale, il souligne les acquis successifs qui permettent de mieux préciser les enjeux et les défis à relever en ce début de XXIème siècle.




Aménagement et développement local, une histoire dominée par les changements structurels de la France et de l’Europe.

Première partie : De la reconstruction à l’écroulement de l’économie traditionnelle

Cette phase peut se scinder en trois périodes. De 1947 à 1968, […] le développement territorial n’existe pas, le rural hors agricole est l’espace restant et l’agriculture devient le pilier des exportations. De 1968 à 1975, […] émerge une forte résistance du monde rural et une montée des problèmes des problèmes urbains (chômage, choc pétrolier, contrat de pays, conservatoire du littoral). De 1975 à 1981, […] la montée des terroirs apparait sous cet aspect autant comme un refuge que comme une véritable alternative.

Deuxième partie: Les territoires à l’épreuve des problèmes économiques (de 1981 à 2000).

De 1981 à 1987, […] le projet de territoire s’efface derrière les territoires de projet et le local doit gérer socialement la déprise économique et humaine. De 987 à 1995, […] le « local » se cherche avec l’atténuation du clivage urbain/rural. De 1995 à aujourd’hui, […] le pays devient un échelon reconnu de concertation et d’émergence confronté à l’organisation d’un pouvoir intercommunal naissant.

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L’adhésion des PECO, aspects socio-économiques

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur s’inscrit en faux vis-à-vis de la vision courante des agricultures des PECO, souvent perçues comme un avantage comparatif pour l’intégration de ces pays dans l’Union Européenne. En s’appuyant sur l’analyse de la compétitivité agricole, de la productivité, de la structuration des exploitations et en décryptant le retour à la terre comme un refuge anti-chômage, l’auteur propose de considérer le développement économique et agricole de ces pays non seulement comme un projet de développement rural classique mais comme une politique d’organisation et d’aménagement du territoire au sens large, c’est-à-dire des campagnes et des villes et des liens qu’elles peuvent entretenir.




La problématique du développement rural dans les PECO ne peut être celle de l’Union Européenne parce que, surtout dans certains pays, la création d’emplois ruraux non agricoles ne sera pas à la hauteur du défi posé par la destruction, mettons à l’horizon d’une dizaine d’années, de 5 ou 6 millions d’emplois agricoles. Il est clair que la clef majeure de la restructuration agricole sera une fois de plus, si on regarde les choses dans la longue durée, dans des migrations hors de l’agriculture, éventuellement vers les villes petites et moyennes. Mais le développement rural au sens étroit ne pourra pas être la seule réponse, d’où l’insistance finale sur des politiques de développement rural plus largement entendues, de formation et migration professionnelle, de reconversion économique régionale, etc., telles qu’elles ont été prévues par les accords de Copenhague et qui relèvent plus largement du deuxième pilier de la PAC, ainsi que des fonds structurels et de cohésion accordés aux PECO après leur adhésion.

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La situation démographique dans les nouveaux pays membres de l’Union Européenne

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur analyse les données démographiques de l’élargissement de l’Union Européenne de 15 à 25 pays membres. En détaillant les différences entre les pays entrants et les 15 – conditions de vie, accroissement naturel, fécondité, flux migratoire -, il éclaire les enjeux d’un rassemblement certes historique, mais pas sans risque pour l’équilibre des territoires concernés et de leurs populations.




L’élargissement à 25, c’est l’Europe qui retrouve son histoire, l’Europe qui se réunit dans les racines de son identité commune. Mais, en même temps, le fait de se réunir, de se retrouver ensemble, c’est aussi supporter un certain nombre d’héritages. Il faut souhaiter un Printemps démographique pour l’Europe sinon, les phénomènes de dépopulation que nous constatons dans certains pays et dans certains territoires risquent de se produire, ce qui ne permettrait pas de construire une Europe de l’avenir.

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Urbains, ruraux en Ile-de-France : construire la coexistence

2001



En rappelant les spécificités régionales du lien ville-campagne, l’auteur partage différentes expériences conduites en Ile-de-France qui témoignent des enjeux, des perspectives et des pistes d’amélioration des liens entre développement urbain et développement rural.




En Ile-de-France […] les problèmes de relations entre les urbains et les ruraux sont une question d’actualité, une question forte qui est posée à notre région, dont on oublie souvent que plus de 50% de son espace est rural, qu’elle nourrit plusieurs milliers d’agriculteurs, qu’elle entraîne dans son sillage tous les acteurs de la filière, et qu’elle représente une part significative de notre Produit Intérieur Brut. Nous sommes aussi dans une région où l’urbanisation incontrôlée a mangé des espaces !

La Région, qui a en charge la conception de l’aménagement du territoire régional, a désormais un devoir, non pas d’assistance mais d’accompagnement à ce mouvement et, si possible, de redressement de ce mouvement. […] Nous avons une expérience très riche et je pense relativement innovante en Ile-de-France sur les rapports entre urbanisation et ruralité.

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