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Le regard d’un géographe sur le rural aujourd’hui

2014



Comment la sociologie aborde les sociétés rurales ?




Comment percevez-vous l’espace rural ?

En Europe l’espace rural n’est pas homogène, plusieurs réalités coexistent. On peut trouver d’abord des espaces à dominante agricole structurés par un modèle de développement dont les composantes demeurent essentiellement agraires (droit de propriété, rythmes sociaux, valeurs, etc.). Dans ces espaces, la fonctionnalité territoriale reste exclusivement agricole. La question du devenir des autres acteurs et des autres fonctions de l’espace (récréatives, etc.) est alors posée. Ainsi, on comprend que le devenir de ces territoires est très lié à celui de l’agriculture et des agriculteurs. D’autres types d’espace rural possèdent une dominante industrielle et agricole en raison de localisation de nombreuses activités manufacturières en milieu rural, ce qui structure les emplois (les ouvriers vivent majoritairement en milieu rural) ainsi qu’une partie de l’histoire de ces territoires. Par conséquent, il n’existe pas une seule ruralité en Europe. La réalité est beaucoup plus diversifiée que ce que nous pouvons en dire.

En France, il existe aussi plusieurs réalités rurales.

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Les piliers du devenir des territoires en Europe

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours de clôture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur souligne les trois piliers indissociables pour réfléchir le devenir des territoires européens : l’agriculture, le rural, la relation de l’homme au territoire.




Il y a trois piliers qui sont indissociables à la réflexion et sur lesquels je me permettrai de dire quelques mots : l’agriculture, le rural, et le territoire. Je ne veux pas les confondre. Ce serait rendre un mauvais service aux trois, mais je voudrais vous dire qu’ils sont indissociables et qu’il ne peut pas y avoir de développement rural sans agriculteurs.
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La subsidiarité est une question d’actualité

2001



Dans cet article, l’auteur explique en quoi la notion de subsidiarité lui paraît stratégique pour appréhender les évolutions mondiales, pour poursuivre la construction de l’Europe tout comme pour gérer les crises de la société française.




La mondialisation en cours se manifeste dans nos sociétés par une tension entre le global et le local. Alors que les responsables « pensent global » et expliquent le global, les citoyens, ceux qui veulent agir dans la société, « pensent local ». Cette distance est très certainement une des raisons du malaise de la démocratie, tout au moins dans les pays d’Europe occidentale : il faut rétablir un dialogue entre les uns et les autres.
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Le libéralisme exacerbé actuel est-il compatible avec la vie des territoires ?

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur rappelle les traits essentiels de la mutation de la société suscitée par la mondialisation et le progrès technique, afin d’éclairer trois options de société pour le futur. Il souligne ensuite quelques problèmes principaux à dépasser pour que libéralisme et vie des territoires se renforcent : relier le marché et les institutions, favoriser la construction européenne, revisiter le développement durable. D’où la possibilité d’appréhender le territoire avec un regard nouveau, c’est à dire comme un lieu de réconciliation, d’enracinement, de relation, d’équilibre et donc de vie.




Des Trente Glorieuses à la période dite de crise qui a suivi, les thèmes et les tendances sont restés les mêmes. Le thème de « Paris et le désert français » a perduré. Les tendances comme les migrations de la campagne vers la ville ou le vieillissement de la population rurale se sont maintenues. Les politiques d’aménagement du territoire étaient largement influencées par la fascination des grands réseaux de circulation des biens et des personnes et par l’objectif de la compétitivité.

Il est très difficile de discerner ce qui est immuable de ce qui est changeant dans la société. Mais ma conviction est que nous affrontons une grande mutation dont je rappellerai les traits essentiels pour présenter quelques options pour le futur. Enfin, puisqu’une transition doit s’opérer, j’aborderai la question suivante : dans quelle mesure l’intelligence et la puissance de l’homme, les intelligences collectives d’une nation ou d’un groupe de nations, peuvent-elles infléchir un modèle en train de se créer ?

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