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Pour une approche stratégique du bien commun

1998



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’appréhender la prise en charge des biens communs, tels que la gestion du vivant, avec de nouvelles approches qui visent à organiser la négociation autour des attentes multiples des acteurs concernés.




Un certain nombre de signaux montrent que notre façon d’agir ensemble nous rend incapables de traiter certaines réalités. Nous ne savons pas gérer la qualité des eaux souterraines en Alsace, ni la qualité de l’eau d’un bassin versant. Nous ne savons agir que par la contrainte, par l’interdiction. Mais chacun a de telles marges de liberté et de non implication vis-à-vis d’une norme, quelle qu’elle soft, que ce système de contraintes peut être parfaitement inefficace pour gérer des réalités comme la qualité de l’eau, la qualité de la vie. Les acteurs ne s’impliquent que s’ils en ont envie dans une action qu’ils jugent légitime et efficace. Ainsi, dans le secteur des entreprises, la gestion de la qualité a évolué. Il y a 30 ans, la demande de produits était telle qu’une entreprise pouvait être un « offreur systématique » et imposer aux clients sa conception de la qualité. Les gens étaient contents d’avoir une 2 CV, même s’il fallait attendre 3 ans. Par la suite, un autre équilibre entre l’offre et la demande s’est établi. Les consommateurs ont alors voulu une amélioration du produit. Puis de nouveaux acteurs se sont imposés dans la conception de la qualité du produit : les salariés, les écologistes étudiant l’impact de l’entreprise sur l’environnement, l’actionnaire se demandant si le profit serait durable, etc.

L’entreprise, d’acteur strictement productif, est aujourd’hui tenue de devenir beaucoup plus stratégique. Elle doit mobiliser ses hommes. Elle ne peut plus avoir 5% de gens « intelligents » et 95% « d’exécutants ». Elle a besoin de l’intelligence de tous. Et cette intelligence ne se libère que par la libre adhésion. La mobiliser suppose énormément de savoir, de précautions. La qualité s’impose aujourd’hui comme un bien commun qui requiert une approche stratégique.

Les territoires sont l’objet d’offres et de demandes de qualité. Pour Henry Ollagnon, on ne peut vraiment négocier que lorsqu’on est à la fois offreur et demandeur de qualité. Si le monde rural n’est que le lieu d’un marchandage entre zones et fonctions, il sera dépouillé parce qu’il ne représente que 10% de la population. Si par contre, chacun se sent à la fois offreur et demandeur d’une qualité, par exemple de la santé humaine et de l’épanouissement de l’homme, alors des négociations peuvent s’engager. C’est ce qui se passe en Haut Béarn ou à Olmanie (Biélorussie).

Pour engager ce processus, on peut mobiliser les ressorts patrimoniaux que chacun a en lui. Si à l’intérieur de l’entreprise, il n’y a pas un minimum d’intérêt commun, si le salarié ne se sent pas acteur du succès financier de l’entreprise, on ne pourra ni en parler avec lui, ni mobiliser son adhésion.

Engager de telles négociations nécessite une approche stratégique. Nous avons cru que nous pourrions prendre tous les problèmes en charge dans le cadre privé ou dans le cadre public. Mais certains éléments ne peuvent être gérés dans leur globalité ni dans l’un, ni dans l’autre cadre. L’administration doit administrer sous régulation politique, les chefs d’entreprises doivent travailler dans le cadre de la propriété privée. Par contre, d’autres enjeux, qui relèvent du bien commun comme la gestion du vivant nécessitent d’engager des négociations stratégiques dans un cadre contractuel nouveau.

Henry Ollagnon conclut : « nous constatons l’émergence de nouvelles attentes stratégiques à satisfaire. Il faut donc construire un juste équilibre entre les modes de négociation classique et ceux de la négociation coopérative. Cela suppose la mise en place de nouvelles approches, la création de nouveaux métiers pour traiter les problèmes du vivant. Des outils existent pour cela ».

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Expliciter un jeu à somme positive : l’exemple de l’orange

1996



Sur une table : une orange et un couteau. Autour de la table : Sophie et Marie.
Comment partager l’orange pour obtenir un jeu à somme positive ?




Sur une table : une orange et un couteau. Autour de la table : Sophie et Marie.

Comment partager l’orange pour obtenir un jeu à somme positive ?

1 « Couper l’orange en deux et en donner une moitié à Sophie et l’autre moitié à Marie. » C’est un jeu à somme nulle.

2 « Il vaut mieux retirer le couteau pour ne pas qu’elles se disputent. » Ce serait un jeu à somme négative.

3 « Les écouter attentivement et de manière confidentielle : Sophie veut le zeste pour faire un gâteau et Marie veut la pulpe pour boire un jus. » C’est l’explicitation d’un jeu à somme positive.

(1) Exemple tiré de Comment réussir une négociation?, de Fisher, Uri et Patton (éditions du Seuil, 1981)

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La goutte d’eau, l’ours et le milieu rural

1996



Comment faire se rencontrer plusieurs représentations d’une même situation ? Comment faire que la recherche de liberté de l’homme et la qualité de la nature se renforcent ? Comment impliquer les hommes face de réalités en mouvement et en interaction ? Comment susciter le changement de comportement d’un ensemble d’acteurs ? Dans cet article, l’auteur retrace les principaux constats et questionnements qui l’ont conduit à formaliser l’approche patrimoniale.




S’agissant de la même nappe phréatique, une première constatation assez curieuse…

Pour certains, les « économistes », une goutte d’eau est une ressource économique. Leur langage n’est qu’économique. Pour d’autres, les écologistes, c’est un milieu de vie. Ils proposent un discours écologique. Pour d’autres encore, les « technico-administratifs », c’est à la fois une ressource économique et un milieu de vie, mais en tout cas, c’est toujours un objet de gestion publique. Il faut donc lui appliquer des règles publiques dans le cadre d’une approche administrative.

Pourtant, c’est la même goutte d’eau ! L’eau pose un problème tout simple : elle a une multitude de dimensions. Une multitude de personnes sont en relation avec elle. Mais leurs différents regards sur l’eau ne se rencontrent pas, ne s’enrichissent nulle part et, pire, ils se désorganisent les uns les autres.

Un de nos gros problèmes aujourd’hui, c’est d’admettre que le mot « eau » a un contenu sémantique très divers selon les acteurs, mais que c’est de la même eau dont il s’agit.

Deuxième fait assez bizarre.

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La démarche patrimoniale

2006



Dans cet article, les auteurs synthétisent les grandes lignes de la démarche patrimoniale. Centrée sur la gestion du vivant donc la gestion de la complexité, la démarche patrimoniale permet de faire évoluer le comportement d’un ensemble d’acteurs en interaction face à un problème. En illustrant la définition de la « gestion de la qualité du vivant » avec la gestion d’une rivière, les auteurs distinguent les limites des approches universalistes actuelles et propose d’engager une autre voie, celle de l’approche patrimoniale pour accompagner les acteurs vers une meilleure de la gestion du vivant.




La gestion du vivant, un enjeu majeur pour notre société

Tout au long de son parcours personnel et professionnel, Henry Ollagnon s’est intéressé à la question de la gestion du vivant par les hommes à travers de nombreux sujets : la gestion des espèces, des ressources et des milieux naturels, la gestion des territoires, la gestion des crises, l’ingénierie des projets complexes, l’adaptation stratégique des gestionnaires du vivant au développement durable. Pour lui, le vivant émerge aujourd’hui comme un révélateur d’une crise profonde de nos sociétés, basée sur une conception de la modernité qui exclue tout ce qui est complexe, circulant, évolutif pour le réduire à du mesurable, causal, stable. Cette crise du vivant se manifeste, pour de nombreux acteurs publics et privés, par des problèmes nouveaux, mais suscite aussi des projets pour un renouvellement de la gestion des territoires, des produits et de la nature. Rechercher les conditions et les moyens d’une meilleure gestion de la qualité du vivant n’est pas seulement, se confronter à des problèmes ou monter des projets, c’est aussi entreprendre un chemin original pour la connaissance et l’action en univers complexe. Henry Ollagnon a ainsi exposé les concepts et les méthodes d’une « gestion patrimoniale de la qualité du vivant ».

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La gestion du vivant : une stratégie d’avenir pour la société et l’agriculture

2005



Dans cet article, l’auteur recherche les conditions pour impliquer les agriculteurs et l’agriculture au cœur du projet de développement durable que recherche la société. En revenant sur les critères courants de développement durable, il propose d’éclairer une voie nouvelle fondée sur la prise en charge du vivant dans une approche de qualité totale. Comment les agriculteurs peuvent-ils se saisir du rôle stratégique qu’ils peuvent y jouer ?




L’agriculture est-elle une activité d’avenir en France et en Europe, comme ailleurs dans les territoires du monde ? Les agriculteurs peuvent-ils répondre seuls à cette question ? La société fait-elle le lien, à travers sa recherche de développement durable, entre la qualité du vivant qu’elle recherche et l’agriculture ?

Au carrefour de l’alimentation, de la gestion de la qualité de la nature, de l’ambiance des territoires, les agriculteurs ont potentiellement un rôle à jouer. Mais, l’agriculture est-elle ainsi reconnue comme une activité de gestion du vivant ? Cette reconnaissance va de moins en moins de soi. Il faut des promoteurs, des chemins, des actes pour que la société se dote d’une véritable gestion de la qualité du vivant, dans chaque territoire de la biosphère.

N’est-ce pas une vaste et nécessaire ambition pour les agriculteurs que de promouvoir, de façon opérationnelle, par une stratégie de la qualité totale, une agriculture durable dans les territoires du monde ?

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Le projet socio-politique du développement durable

2001



Après un bref retour sur l’apparition de la notion de développement durable, symptôme de l’émergence de la complexité du vivant, l’auteur propose quatre leviers pour considérer la gestion du vivant en bonne santé : une exigence de qualité totale, des modalités de prise en charge revisitées, le besoin de piloter la qualité, la nécessité de sécuriser les acteurs dans la prise d’initiative. En conclusion, le développement durable est un choix politique de société.




Je me souviens d’un […] philosophe [qui] nous disait qu’il y a des faits prospectifs, des signaux faibles que certains savent voir. A propos des signaux faibles, Chardin a écrit à son ami Huxley […] « je suis aussi pessimiste que vous pour 4 raisons » :

  • D’abord parce que pour maîtriser le vivant et l’homme, il faut agir sur toute l’humanité, or l’humanité est en train de devenir une. Nous sommes en 1951, et je me demande comment quelqu’un pourra prendre le pouvoir sur cette entité qui est en train de se construire.

  • Le deuxième point, je crois que vous faites erreur, ce ne sont pas les caractères exceptionnels qui poseront problème demain, ce sera la prise en charge des constantes de la base du vivant. Donc, ce n’est pas l’exceptionnel, c’est le quotidien qui va poser problème.

  • Ensuite troisième point, un système dans lequel il n’y a plus d’individus […] engendre cette société hautement complexe où chaque acteur va se trouver confronté aux conséquences de ces choix qui seront sans commune mesure avec les causes initiales. Cela veut dire que dans cette société hautement complexe, un acteur, un individu peut générer des phénomènes extraordinairement importants, des impacts non prévisibles. Je crois qu’il n’y a pas besoin de faire de dessin !

  • Et enfin, dernier point, la vision que nous avons de ce qui est important c’est le struggle for life de Darwin, soit c’est le plus fort qui gagne ! Dans cette société hautement complexe, ce sera le plus apte à l’action complexe qui gagnera !

C’est ce qui m’a inspiré dans mon chemin et c’est pour cela que j’ai fait de la biologie. Quand j’ai fait de la biologie, j’ai vu que personne ne posait de questions politiques, alors j’ai fait des sciences politiques et de l’économie et là personne ne se posait de questions du vivant. C’est donc par accident que je me suis retrouvé au Ministère de l’Agriculture pour traiter un problème qui m’était strictement personnel : la gestion du vivant en bonne santé. Beaucoup s’occupent du vivant malade et personne du vivant en bonne santé et encore plus au niveau de l’humanité ! J’ai progressivement été amené à voir qu’un énorme problème se posait, et c’est de cette question dont je vais vous parler. Je vais vous en parler autour de la notion de développement durable.

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