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L’Etat, le marché, la communauté : comment améliorer la gestion de l’eau ?

2010



L’article fait le point sur quelques enseignements du projet de thèse de Didier CHRISTIN. A la lumière de ses travaux, l’auteur défriche quelques points structurants du paradigme de la gestion de l’eau et nous invite à repenser les binômes « Etat-marché », « liberté-contrainte » si l’on souhaite effectivement améliorer la qualité globale de l’eau.




Ces dernières décennies, deux grandes approches ont très largement dominées les politiques de l’eau : le marché et l’Etat. Pour les tenants de la première approche, « le marché », la privatisation des ressources en eau devait permettre une gestion durable de celles-ci, du fait des vertus attribuées au « marché », de la régulation attendue de celui-ci par adéquation entre les offres et les demandes en eau. Pour les tenants de la seconde approche, « l’Etat », l’appropriation par la puissance publique des ressources en eau allait assurer – par la définition et la mise en place de normes, de règles, de lois, de techniques aussi, s’appliquant à tous et en tout lieu – une gestion durable de l’eau.

Quelle place pour la « société » dans les politiques issues de ces deux grandes approches ?

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L’association foncière pastorale : un outil de travail

1999






L’association foncière pastorale : un outil de travail

L’association foncière pastorale (AFP) réunit les propriétaires fonciers afin de gérer collectivement un périmètre à l’abandon ou en voie d’abandon. Cinq principaux objectifs sont visés :

  • Répondre aux objectifs de la politique paysagère intercommunale : le paysage est le fruit de la relation entre un milieu naturel et une société ;

  • Améliorer l’aspect paysager de la vallée, en rendant plus agréable le cadre de vie quotidien de ses habitants et plus attractive cette zone de montagne pour les touristes ;

  • Résorber progressivement les grands espaces en friche aux portes des villages ;

  • Développer et soutenir l’agriculture de montagne de la vallée par la mise en valeur de prés de fauche et de pâturages ;

  • Sauvegarder la vie économique et sociale des villages.

Les propriétaires du périmètre concerné s’associent tout en restant individuellement propriétaires de leurs biens fonciers. Il n’est en aucun cas question d’expropriation. La création de l’AFP permet à un propriétaire de vendre ou d’acheter des terrains du périmètre. L’AFP gère, entretient ou fait entretenir l’ensemble du périmètre, y effectue les travaux nécessaires à la remise en état.

Toutes les décisions sont prises en Assemblée générale, par l’ensemble des propriétaires ; la Direction départementale de l’agriculture et des forêts (DDAF) et le District Haute-Bruche aident à l’aboutissement du projet, dans la mesure où la majorité des propriétaires concernés y est favorable. L’association est largement soutenue financièrement par les divers partenaires institutionnels, une part restant à sa charge.

L’AFP est donc essentiellement un outil de travail pour faire en sorte qu’un espace naturel soit entretenu au lieu de perdre toute valeur agronomique, patrimoniale, paysagère…

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Remettre en valeur des fonds de vallées livrés à la friche

1999



Cet article reprend l’intervention de Pierre GRANDADAM lors d’une rencontre sur les problèmes complexes liés au vivant. L’auteur raconte comment, dans un partenariat étroit avec les acteurs du territoire (agriculteurs, propriétaires et habitants), les élus locaux ont initié la remise en valeur des fonds de vallées de la Haute-Bruche. Etape par étape, des outils comme l’association foncière pastorale ont été mobilisé et ont permis d’atteindre des résultats déjà satisfaisants, en particulier pour la qualité du paysage.




Pierre Grandadam est maire d’une commune qui couvre 2300 hectares dans cette vallée des Vosges. Un seul agriculteur y vit encore. Progressivement l’industrie textile et bon nombre d’exploitations agricoles ont disparu. L’espace s’est désagrégé. Les habitants se sont résignés à accepter ces espaces délaissés. Chacun s’est habitué à la friche, a perdu la volonté d’occuper l’espace. L’image symbole de cette évolution est assez désolante : des friches et des zones marécageuses dans laquelle les sapins, pieds dans l’eau toute l’année, crèvent l’un après l’autre.

En 1980, le District a souhaité initier une dynamique autour du paysage, afin de rouvrir les fonds de vallées, de les remettre en valeur.

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Lien entre sol et civilisation : l’eau

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’envisager les enjeux de gestion de l’eau comme une opportunité pour positiver la fonction des agriculteurs et plus largement des gestionnaires des territoires ruraux. C’est pourquoi il faut selon lui considérer l’eau comme un « produit du sol » et non pas seulement comme un « don du ciel ».




Elément de civilisation urbaine, l’eau est un atout souvent cité de l’attractivité des territoires ruraux et de leurs paysages : ruisseaux et rivières, étangs et lacs, pêche à la truite ou au brochet, chasse aux canards, sports d’eau vive… donnent envie et peuvent faire rêver de vacances, voire d’une installation à la campagne.

En tant qu’un des principaux facteurs de l’environnement, un patrimoine, la volonté est forte de mieux protéger l’eau et de la valoriser : des emplois industriels nouveaux naissent de ce besoin de société. En tant que produit – c’est le cas de l’eau minérale mais aussi de l’eau potable, voire de l’eau brute dès lors qu’elle est vendue au mètre cube – la demande est de plus en plus forte : il est opportun, dans un pays inquiet de voir la demande saturée dans bien des domaines, de prêter attention à des biens de plus en plus recherchés pour lesquels des marchés sont à inventer, à structurer et à prendre.

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Des montagnes, des ours et des hommes

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur témoigne des racines de son engagement dans les vallées du Haut-Béarn qui d’une situation de crise face au « problème de l’ours » l’ont conduit à porter une démarche patrimoniale pour ré-impliquer progressivement l’ensemble des acteurs qui revendiquent une responsabilité sur ce territoire où vivent les ours… un processus qui pour l’auteur part du principe que chacun dans son domaine ou sa compétence a quelque chose à faire pour le bien commun.




Je suis fils de berger transhumant. J’habite le village de Lourdios-Ichere dans les Pyrénées Atlantiques. C’est dans une ambiance chaleureuse que mon père nous a inculqués à mon frère, mes deux sœurs et moi une certaine idée du pays. Sans qu’il nous ait jamais donné l’obligation impérieuse d’y rester, j’ai compris ensuite qu’il avait fait ce qu’il fallait pour que nous ne suivions pas le mouvement général des jeunes qui partaient. Chaque fois que je voyais des maisons se fermer, j’avais le cœur serré : c’était une civilisation qui foutait le camp ! Et, d’une certaine manière, par notre silence, nous laissions faire cela.

Lorsqu’il s’est agi de choisir, c’est finalement mon frère qui a repris l’exploitation, le troupeau familial et la transhumance. J’ai été élu maire de ma commune à 21 ans, puis Conseiller Général. Je suis vice-président du Conseil Général, député suppléant. J’ai fait un peu de politique. Mais je n’ai jamais considéré la politique comme une fin en soi. C’est un moyen de réaliser des actions. Comme je ne voulais pas en être dépendant, j’ai créé mon propre bureau d’ingénieurs conseil. J’ai toujours continué à mener cette activité.

Au début de mon mandat de maire, nous avons créé un foyer rural à Lourdios, ce qui nous a permis de beaucoup voyager et de comprendre pas mal de choses. Nous sommes allés en Allemagne, en Irlande, en Autriche, à Cuba, en Egypte, en Israël et, en retour, nous recevions les gens chez nous. Lors de nos escales à Paris, nous retrouvions les copains qui avaient quitté le pays. Ils n’étaient pas partis de gaieté de cœur mais lorsqu’ils venaient au pays, ils affichaient un certain bonheur. A Paris, nous nous sommes vite rendu compte que ce n’était pas très exactement le cas. Paris n’était pas forcément l’Eldorado dont on m’avait parlé. Dans le fond, nous n’avions pas absolument tort de faire le choix de rester au pays. Nous n’étions pas tellement isolés. Nous établissions des liens et des relations lors de nos voyages qui ont donné un grand coup de moral à mon village de 80 habitants : pratiquement tous les jeunes ont décidé de s’y installer.

Nous vivons dans la seule région de France où vivent encore, d’une manière naturelle, quelques ours. Nous trouvions cela assez naturel, même si la cohabitation a toujours été difficile au fil des siècles.

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Discours du Dimanche des Terres de France

1991



Dans ce discours de clôture du Dimanche des Terres de France, l’auteur expose les fondements de la vision qu’il souhaite porter à travers la promotion du développement des territoires ruraux, en particulier en créant par la suite l’association Sol et Civilisation.




Aujourd’hui toute la France rurale s’est mise en marche !

Nous avons gagné notre pari !

Artisans, commerçants, salariés, professions libérales, agriculteurs, vous avez quitté vos ateliers, vos magasins, vos fermes, vous avez répondu massivement à notre appel.

Vous êtes venus à la rencontre de la population parisienne pour lui dire que la France rurale veut vivre, que ses hommes et ses valeurs sont indispensables à l’équilibre économique et social de la France. Vous avez expliqué aux citadins que cette nature harmonieuse et accueillante dont ils ont de plus en plus besoin n’est pas un don du ciel, mais le fruit du labeur quotidien des hommes. Vous avez ébranlé les murailles du mépris et de l’indifférence qui laissent mourir nos entreprises et dépérir des zones entières de notre pays. Vous êtes venus à ce rendez-vous historique des Terres de France : grâce à vous le grain de l’espérance a pu être semé !

Le monde rural veut vivre !

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De la gestion durable des forêts

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur rappelle les liens historiques entre certification forestière et gestion durable des forêts, détaille l’émergence de cette notion en France et en Europe et son appropriation par les forestiers privés et acteurs de la filière bois à travers le système PEFC, qui se distingue de l’approche PFC.




Les forêts sont des milieux particuliers, caractérisés par la longueur des cycles de production : le forestier travaille pour son arrière-petit-enfant… Sans le moteur puissant de l’attachement à la terre et le sens patrimonial de leurs détenteurs, les forêts ne seraient que de vastes espaces improductifs, sans intérêt aucun pour les populations. Or les forêts produisent du bois et d’autres produits forestiers, certes. Ce sont aussi des lieux de détente et de récréation. Elles contribuent aux paysages et accueillent flore et faune. Elles protègent les sols, la qualité de l’eau. A l’échelle mondiale, elles contribuent à la lutte contre la désertification. Elles ont une fonction capitale en matière d’effet de serre et de capture du carbone atmosphérique…

Bref, les forêts sont au cœur des débats de sociétés actuels et ce d’autant plus qu’elles disparaissent à l’échelle de la planète. Il ne faut dès lors pas s’étonner que les forêts soient au cœur des grandes discussions internationales sur des sujets aussi divers que la désertification, la protection de la nature ou l’effet de serre ; qu’elles soient l’objet de toutes les convoitises, chacun cherchant à se les approprier pour en exploiter l’aspect qui l’intéresse le plus ; ou qu’elles soient l’objet de toutes les contestations, chacun voyant midi à sa porte.

Face à ces débats, la communauté internationale a réagi à partir de 1972, par des démarches au niveau onusien, puis paneuropéen. Peu à peu, l’idée de la codification de la gestion durable des forêts fait son chemin (avec la définition de critères, d’indicateurs quantitatifs et qualitatifs…), sans que les résolutions prises n’aient de caractère contraignant.

L’idée de certification forestière est née lors de la conférence de Rio qui introduit un lien entre commerce et gestion durable, invitant plus ou moins directement les acteurs, et pas seulement les Etats, à se mobiliser afin d’introduire une discrimination et disqualifier ceux qui gèrent mal, au profit de ceux qui gèrent bien.

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Crise du vivant et stratégies de prise en charge de la qualité commune

2000



Dans son éditorial, l’auteur s’inquiète de la montée des crises du vivant qui annoncent un défi majeur pour nos sociétés : élaborer des stratégies communes pour prendre charge la qualité du vivant par et avec l’ensemble des acteurs concernés, agriculteurs bien sûr, mais aussi acteurs de filière, consommateurs etc.




Une fois encore, les gros titres des journaux se font l’écho de notre incapacité à gérer le vivant de manière satisfaisante : vache folle, listériose, marée noire, qualité de l’eau, etc. J’ai noté deux types de réactions : d’une part, la volonté d’améliorer la connaissance scientifique des phénomènes en jeu, ce qui me semble tout à fait légitime bien qu’insuffisant et, d’autre part, la recherche d’un bouc-émissaire à qui on appliquerait des normes de plus en plus drastiques.

L’agriculteur, gestionnaire du vivant que je suis, sait bien que les choses ne sont malheureusement pas aussi simples. Il est clair qu’abaisser le taux de listéria acceptable dans un pot de rillettes ne suffira pas à prévenir les décès dus à la listériose. Il faut bien sûr que des normes de qualité s’appliquent à l’éleveur, à l’abatteur, au producteur de rillettes, au transporteur, au commerçant, au fabricant de réfrigérateurs. Mais il faut aussi que le consommateur ne rompe pas la chaîne du froid et nettoie son frigo régulièrement. Il faut que chacun des acteurs de la filière assume ses responsabilités. Complexe !

Par ailleurs, le maître mot dans ce type de crise est la confiance. Pour recréer de la confiance, l’interdiction, le répressif ne suffisent pas. Tous les acteurs concernés doivent s’accorder sur une stratégie de qualité commune, prise en charge par chacun. C’est là que cela devient réellement compliqué, car il ne s’agit pas que de technique, mais d’humain. Mettre en œuvre de telles stratégies appelle des comportements nouveaux qui doivent s’inscrire dans le temps et des méthodes nouvelles.

Sol et Civilisation s’attache depuis deux ans à caractériser et à promouvoir ces démarches et ces méthodes. Pour cela, elle réunit régulièrement des acteurs de divers secteurs d’activités, concernés par ce type de problèmes liés au vivant. Ce numéro 15 de la Lettre se fait l’écho d’une de ces journées de travail. Qu’il s’agisse de la gestion d’un territoire comme la Chartreuse, de grandes entreprises ou de la filière bois, des démarches nouvelles émergent. Elles méritent d’être mises en lumière car elles sont, à mon sens, porteuses d’espoir. Elles nous permettront de gérer des crises de gestion du vivant, qui ne vont pas manquer de se multiplier, témoin la pollution au cyanure du Danube !

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Le projet socio-politique du développement durable

2001



Après un bref retour sur l’apparition de la notion de développement durable, symptôme de l’émergence de la complexité du vivant, l’auteur propose quatre leviers pour considérer la gestion du vivant en bonne santé : une exigence de qualité totale, des modalités de prise en charge revisitées, le besoin de piloter la qualité, la nécessité de sécuriser les acteurs dans la prise d’initiative. En conclusion, le développement durable est un choix politique de société.




Je me souviens d’un […] philosophe [qui] nous disait qu’il y a des faits prospectifs, des signaux faibles que certains savent voir. A propos des signaux faibles, Chardin a écrit à son ami Huxley […] « je suis aussi pessimiste que vous pour 4 raisons » :

  • D’abord parce que pour maîtriser le vivant et l’homme, il faut agir sur toute l’humanité, or l’humanité est en train de devenir une. Nous sommes en 1951, et je me demande comment quelqu’un pourra prendre le pouvoir sur cette entité qui est en train de se construire.

  • Le deuxième point, je crois que vous faites erreur, ce ne sont pas les caractères exceptionnels qui poseront problème demain, ce sera la prise en charge des constantes de la base du vivant. Donc, ce n’est pas l’exceptionnel, c’est le quotidien qui va poser problème.

  • Ensuite troisième point, un système dans lequel il n’y a plus d’individus […] engendre cette société hautement complexe où chaque acteur va se trouver confronté aux conséquences de ces choix qui seront sans commune mesure avec les causes initiales. Cela veut dire que dans cette société hautement complexe, un acteur, un individu peut générer des phénomènes extraordinairement importants, des impacts non prévisibles. Je crois qu’il n’y a pas besoin de faire de dessin !

  • Et enfin, dernier point, la vision que nous avons de ce qui est important c’est le struggle for life de Darwin, soit c’est le plus fort qui gagne ! Dans cette société hautement complexe, ce sera le plus apte à l’action complexe qui gagnera !

C’est ce qui m’a inspiré dans mon chemin et c’est pour cela que j’ai fait de la biologie. Quand j’ai fait de la biologie, j’ai vu que personne ne posait de questions politiques, alors j’ai fait des sciences politiques et de l’économie et là personne ne se posait de questions du vivant. C’est donc par accident que je me suis retrouvé au Ministère de l’Agriculture pour traiter un problème qui m’était strictement personnel : la gestion du vivant en bonne santé. Beaucoup s’occupent du vivant malade et personne du vivant en bonne santé et encore plus au niveau de l’humanité ! J’ai progressivement été amené à voir qu’un énorme problème se posait, et c’est de cette question dont je vais vous parler. Je vais vous en parler autour de la notion de développement durable.

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Un développement durable au service des montagnards

2001



Dans cet exposé, l’auteur détaille les fondements et origines de la création de l’Association des populations des montagnes du monde et l’intérêt de cette initiative pour alimenter les réflexions mondiales sur le développement durable et en relever les défis. Il s’agit avant tout de maintenir des hommes dans ces espaces montagnards, notamment pour préserver les équilibres naturels de ces territoires, mais aussi pour aider la société et chacun de nous à repenser son rapport à la nature, à son milieu et au monde.




Je suis impliqué avec [Pierre Rémy de l’Association nationale des élus de montagne] dans une aventure qui est en train de se développer. […] Depuis l’année 2000, où s’est tenu le forum mondial de la montagne organisé à l’initiative de l’ANEM et de la ville de Chambéry, une Association des Populations des Montagnes du Monde a été créée, dont les activités vont se développer dans les prochaines années.

L’année 2002 est l’année internationale de la montagne, et aussi l’année bilan du « développement durable » issu de la déclaration de Rio qui avait été un point fort des politiques internationales survenues dans les années 90. La montagne a été l’un des sujets de discussion de la conférence, mais les conditions de vie des populations ont été occultées.

Pourtant les montagnards ont en eux la dimension très forte de cette relation au territoire et sont donc très sensibles à toutes les questions d’aménagement du territoire qui les concernent particulièrement. Alors, pourquoi ce terme « développement durable » dans le vocabulaire des montagnards et pourquoi doivent-ils s’y confronter et se l’approprier ?

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