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Les piliers du devenir des territoires en Europe

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours de clôture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur souligne les trois piliers indissociables pour réfléchir le devenir des territoires européens : l’agriculture, le rural, la relation de l’homme au territoire.




Il y a trois piliers qui sont indissociables à la réflexion et sur lesquels je me permettrai de dire quelques mots : l’agriculture, le rural, et le territoire. Je ne veux pas les confondre. Ce serait rendre un mauvais service aux trois, mais je voudrais vous dire qu’ils sont indissociables et qu’il ne peut pas y avoir de développement rural sans agriculteurs.
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Lien entre sol et civilisation : l’eau

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’envisager les enjeux de gestion de l’eau comme une opportunité pour positiver la fonction des agriculteurs et plus largement des gestionnaires des territoires ruraux. C’est pourquoi il faut selon lui considérer l’eau comme un « produit du sol » et non pas seulement comme un « don du ciel ».




Elément de civilisation urbaine, l’eau est un atout souvent cité de l’attractivité des territoires ruraux et de leurs paysages : ruisseaux et rivières, étangs et lacs, pêche à la truite ou au brochet, chasse aux canards, sports d’eau vive… donnent envie et peuvent faire rêver de vacances, voire d’une installation à la campagne.

En tant qu’un des principaux facteurs de l’environnement, un patrimoine, la volonté est forte de mieux protéger l’eau et de la valoriser : des emplois industriels nouveaux naissent de ce besoin de société. En tant que produit – c’est le cas de l’eau minérale mais aussi de l’eau potable, voire de l’eau brute dès lors qu’elle est vendue au mètre cube – la demande est de plus en plus forte : il est opportun, dans un pays inquiet de voir la demande saturée dans bien des domaines, de prêter attention à des biens de plus en plus recherchés pour lesquels des marchés sont à inventer, à structurer et à prendre.

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La gestion du vivant : une stratégie d’avenir pour la société et l’agriculture

2005



Dans cet article, l’auteur recherche les conditions pour impliquer les agriculteurs et l’agriculture au cœur du projet de développement durable que recherche la société. En revenant sur les critères courants de développement durable, il propose d’éclairer une voie nouvelle fondée sur la prise en charge du vivant dans une approche de qualité totale. Comment les agriculteurs peuvent-ils se saisir du rôle stratégique qu’ils peuvent y jouer ?




L’agriculture est-elle une activité d’avenir en France et en Europe, comme ailleurs dans les territoires du monde ? Les agriculteurs peuvent-ils répondre seuls à cette question ? La société fait-elle le lien, à travers sa recherche de développement durable, entre la qualité du vivant qu’elle recherche et l’agriculture ?

Au carrefour de l’alimentation, de la gestion de la qualité de la nature, de l’ambiance des territoires, les agriculteurs ont potentiellement un rôle à jouer. Mais, l’agriculture est-elle ainsi reconnue comme une activité de gestion du vivant ? Cette reconnaissance va de moins en moins de soi. Il faut des promoteurs, des chemins, des actes pour que la société se dote d’une véritable gestion de la qualité du vivant, dans chaque territoire de la biosphère.

N’est-ce pas une vaste et nécessaire ambition pour les agriculteurs que de promouvoir, de façon opérationnelle, par une stratégie de la qualité totale, une agriculture durable dans les territoires du monde ?

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Comment aider les grandes organisations à anticiper le changement ?

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur développe les concepts de cartes mentales et d’organisation apprenante, déduits de l’observation des conditions du changement dans les grandes organisations, et propose d’imaginer un scénario où cette approche de dénominateur maximum commun permettrait non pas de planifier une nouvelle agriculture, mais de dessiner une multitude de petits chemins de changement.




Pour diriger une entreprise, il faut certes avoir une bonne pratique managériale, un bon positionnement stratégique dans la compétition et donc être en phase avec son environnement externe. Pour cela, il devient crucial d’intégrer l’individu à la stratégie. En effet, l’entreprise doit prendre en compte ce que veut le consommateur, appréhender des données nouvelles dues à l’augmentation et à la transformation des marchés (Internet…). Par ailleurs, la gestion du personnel de l’entreprise évolue ; le profil des personnes recrutées change, les façons de communiquer avec elles également. A ces changements, s’ajoute l’évolution de l’environnement de l’entreprise ; de nouvelles règles voient le jour. […]

Pour appréhender ces divers changements, le manager ne peut pas se contenter du niveau superficiel, de ce que produisent les journaux. Il doit aller au-delà, pour comprendre d’une part les motivations, les aspirations, les peurs, les valeurs des gens et d’autre part les grandes tendances, paradigmes. […] Si on appliquait cette méthode à l’agriculture, il est probable qu’aucun grand plan n’en sortirait. Par contre, une multitude de petites idées acceptées par tous émergeraient.

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L’adhésion des PECO, aspects socio-économiques

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur s’inscrit en faux vis-à-vis de la vision courante des agricultures des PECO, souvent perçues comme un avantage comparatif pour l’intégration de ces pays dans l’Union Européenne. En s’appuyant sur l’analyse de la compétitivité agricole, de la productivité, de la structuration des exploitations et en décryptant le retour à la terre comme un refuge anti-chômage, l’auteur propose de considérer le développement économique et agricole de ces pays non seulement comme un projet de développement rural classique mais comme une politique d’organisation et d’aménagement du territoire au sens large, c’est-à-dire des campagnes et des villes et des liens qu’elles peuvent entretenir.




La problématique du développement rural dans les PECO ne peut être celle de l’Union Européenne parce que, surtout dans certains pays, la création d’emplois ruraux non agricoles ne sera pas à la hauteur du défi posé par la destruction, mettons à l’horizon d’une dizaine d’années, de 5 ou 6 millions d’emplois agricoles. Il est clair que la clef majeure de la restructuration agricole sera une fois de plus, si on regarde les choses dans la longue durée, dans des migrations hors de l’agriculture, éventuellement vers les villes petites et moyennes. Mais le développement rural au sens étroit ne pourra pas être la seule réponse, d’où l’insistance finale sur des politiques de développement rural plus largement entendues, de formation et migration professionnelle, de reconversion économique régionale, etc., telles qu’elles ont été prévues par les accords de Copenhague et qui relèvent plus largement du deuxième pilier de la PAC, ainsi que des fonds structurels et de cohésion accordés aux PECO après leur adhésion.

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Pour le plein emploi des territoires et des hommes

2000



Après un rapide panorama historique des gains de productivité, mais aussi de la baisse des prix agricoles, des revenus et de la marginalisation des populations agricoles et rurales, l’auteur explore les conditions permettant de relever le défi alimentaire mondial tout en maintenant des territoires ruraux vivants, en particulier en termes d’organisation mondiale des marchés des produits agricoles.




Au milieu du XIXème siècle, la plupart des agriculteurs du monde pratiquaient une agriculture strictement manuelle. Avec une superficie par actif de l’ordre de un hectare et des rendements en grain généralement inférieurs à 10 quintaux/ha, la productivité de ces systèmes ne dépassait pas 10 quintaux par actif. En Europe, cependant, les systèmes de culture attelée lourde étaient les plus répandus. Avec charrue, charrette…, ils permettaient déjà de cultiver 5 ha par actif, ce qui, avec un rendement de l’ordre de 10 quintaux/ha, permettait d’atteindre une productivité brute du travail de l’ordre de 50 quintaux par actif. Et toutes les agricultures de l’époque s’inscrivaient dans cet écart de productivité qui était donc de l’ordre de 1 à 5.

Dès la fin du XIXème cependant, dans les grandes plaines d’Amérique, d’Australie et d’Europe du nord-ouest…, l’industrie avait déjà fourni aux agriculteurs faucheuses, brabants, semoirs, batteuses à vapeur, etc. Les fermes les mieux équipées atteignaient une superficie d’une dizaine d’hectares par actif. Les rendements étaient toujours d’une dizaine de quintaux à l’hectare. La productivité approchait donc les 100 quintaux par actif.

Or, depuis le début du siècle, les agricultures des pays industrialisés ont parcouru beaucoup de chemin.

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