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L’énergie renouvelable au coeur du développement d’un territoire rural, l’exemple du Mené

2010



Cet article fait le point sur les initiatives et les projets portés par les acteurs du territoire du Mené qu’ont présenté Dominique ROCABOY et Jacky AIGNEL lors des Assises 2007 de Sol et Civilisation. Il dégage les différentes innovations dont les acteurs ont fait preuve pour mener à bien ces projets. Ces innovations sont au coeur du projet de territoire et sont révélatrices d’un territoire vivant et ouvert.




Situé au centre du triangle formé par les axes Rennes à Brest, Saint Brieuc à Vannes et Rennes à Quimper, le territoire du Mené a une superficie de 163,2 km² soit à titre de comparaison 50% plus étendue que la ville de Paris pour une population de 6309 habitants. Le Mené est en effet un territoire rural caractérisé par le poids prépondérant de l’activité agricole et un habitat très dispersé. Dans les années 60, les transformations agricoles et le vieillissement de la population ont entraîné le territoire dans un cercle vicieux ; déprise de l’activité agricole, pertes de population et d’actifs, moindre attractivité.

Face à cette situation, les élus et citoyens du territoire ont cherché à inverser la tendance et tenté de promouvoir leur territoire à travers des projets dont la portée et le cadre transcendent les filières et les compétences établies. Il s’agissait de faire émerger les projets dont peuvent s’emparer l’ensemble des acteurs du territoire pour construire un avenir commun. Ces projets se sont lentement montés au fil des 40 dernières années notamment dans le secteur culturel et économique. Ce temps a aussi permis aux habitants de s’emparer des problématiques du territoire et de s’y investir. Le territoire est ainsi passé par de nombreuses étapes pour maintenant s’inscrire dans une logique de développement durable et d’équilibre énergétique.

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La subsidiarité, base de la démocratie

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur s’inquiète du manque de subsidiarité dans le développement de notre société alors qu’à ses yeux, ce principe est essentiel pour un développement local réussi, incontournable pour poursuivre la construction européenne, et indispensable pour faire émerger un développement mondial cohérent et équilibre…




Nos démocraties représentatives traversent une mauvaise passe. Leur pouvoir de décision est érodé par la mondialisation de la finance et de l’économie. L’idéologie néolibérale dominante les considère comme des systèmes lourds et dépassés, incapables de s’adapter aux nécessités de l’instant et aux virtualités du futur. […]

A cela s’ajoute, dans notre pays, une trop vieille tradition centralisatrice qui imprègne non seulement les rouages de l’Etat mais aussi ceux de maintes organisations privées et même d’entreprises. Elle conduit à prendre des décisions « d’en haut », en négligeant les savoir-faire, le dynamisme, la capacité d’entreprendre et d’exercer des responsabilités de ceux « d’en bas ».

Comment, dès lors, s’étonner que bon nombre de nos concitoyens se désintéressent du vivre ensemble, de la démocratie et jouent la carte du tout individuel, du repli sur soi ? […]

On peut cependant, percevoir des signes montrant que les femmes et les hommes d’aujourd’hui ne se désintéressent pas tous de ce qui se passe dans nos sociétés. Ainsi l’intervention des organisations non gouvernementales au sommet de l’OMC à Seattle, et cela malgré leurs dissonances. Ou encore le refus massif des consommateurs européens de se voir imposer par des firmes multinationales, sans informations sûres et accessibles, des produits alimentaires contenant des organismes génétiquement modifiés.

Cependant, ces fronts du refus, même puissants et organisés, ne peuvent, à eux seuls, suffire à inverser le fonctionnement de nos sociétés. Il faut pour cela réhabiliter et rénover le politique en s’appuyant sur le principe remis à l’ordre du jour par Jacques Delors lorsqu’il était président de la Commission européenne, celui de la subsidiarité.

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Pour des territoires ruraux vivants et entreprenants, des hommes acteurs et responsables

2003



Dans cet article, l’auteur développe les trois dimensions essentielles pour une relance du développement des territoires ruraux : favoriser les relations des hommes entre eux, la vie économique des territoires mais aussi la vie locale et l’organisation des territoires. Il s’agit in fine de trouver les conditions d’application d’une réelle subsidiarité.




En premier lieu, il nous paraît fondamental de réaffirmer que dans le contexte du XXIe siècle, la réussite d’une politique en faveur des territoires ruraux tient essentiellement au fait de reconnaître et d’assumer dans ses conséquences le principe que l’homme est l’acteur central de tout développement territorial durable.

Notre société française, comme beaucoup de sociétés industrialisées, vit sous le signe d’une triple rupture ; rupture interne du milieu rural avec des zones équilibrées économiquement et socialement et d’autres, nombreuses, en voie de dépérissement ; rupture interne du milieu urbain matérialisée par l’éclatement entre les centres villes et les banlieues qui deviennent souvent des ghettos d’exclusion ; et rupture du dialogue et de la connaissance entre milieux ruraux et milieux urbains.

Pour redonner chance à la société française, il faut une forte volonté de rééquilibrage pour effacer ces trois ruptures. Le territoire est un tout et c’est en tant que tel qu’il faut réapprendre à le gérer. Milieux ruraux et milieux urbains doivent se nourrir les uns les autres par un dialogue constructif.

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Agriculture, société, territoires : des liens porteurs de richesses

2005



Dans cette synthèse de colloque, l’auteur propose de considérer le territoire comme un point de rencontre entre agriculture et société. Parce qu’il est un socle de relations, un espace de ressources et un lieu stratégique pour envisager le développement économique. Ceci d’autant plus que les termes d’un nouveau pacte entre agriculture et société se font jour.




Par ce colloque, nous souhaitions illustrer les relations « agriculture-société » en présentant trois cas territoriaux différents, et nous interroger alors sur la place du territoire dans cette relation. Avec les exemples du vignoble de Marcillac, de la coopérative SICASELI et du territoire sénartais, quelques lignes de force sont apparues.

Le territoire reste le socle indispensable pour activer ou réactiver les relations entre les agriculteurs et les autres acteurs de la société.

Il n’y a certes pas et il ne peut y avoir de schéma unique. Chaque territoire, en fonction de sa géographie, de son histoire, de ses contextes socio-économiques, doit définir sa propre stratégie et engager des démarches adaptées. Toutefois, c’est bien dans la proximité que se nouent les relations et les coopérations nécessaires entre tous les acteurs : acteurs économiques, acteurs politiques et acteurs associatifs. Le territoire est alors le support de ces relations et un capital essentiel à valoriser pour le développement.

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Remettre en valeur des fonds de vallées livrés à la friche

1999



Cet article reprend l’intervention de Pierre GRANDADAM lors d’une rencontre sur les problèmes complexes liés au vivant. L’auteur raconte comment, dans un partenariat étroit avec les acteurs du territoire (agriculteurs, propriétaires et habitants), les élus locaux ont initié la remise en valeur des fonds de vallées de la Haute-Bruche. Etape par étape, des outils comme l’association foncière pastorale ont été mobilisé et ont permis d’atteindre des résultats déjà satisfaisants, en particulier pour la qualité du paysage.




Pierre Grandadam est maire d’une commune qui couvre 2300 hectares dans cette vallée des Vosges. Un seul agriculteur y vit encore. Progressivement l’industrie textile et bon nombre d’exploitations agricoles ont disparu. L’espace s’est désagrégé. Les habitants se sont résignés à accepter ces espaces délaissés. Chacun s’est habitué à la friche, a perdu la volonté d’occuper l’espace. L’image symbole de cette évolution est assez désolante : des friches et des zones marécageuses dans laquelle les sapins, pieds dans l’eau toute l’année, crèvent l’un après l’autre.

En 1980, le District a souhaité initier une dynamique autour du paysage, afin de rouvrir les fonds de vallées, de les remettre en valeur.

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Gérer la qualité du vivant : clef de voûte d’un nouveau contrat de société

1998



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’aborder les enjeux du développement des territoires et des équilibres de société avec un regard nouveau : celui d’une gestion du vivant réactualisée. C’est pourquoi l’enjeu n’est pas seulement agricole. Pour l’auteur, il s’agit de reconsidérer le contrat entre la société et son agriculture, et plus largement ses territoires ruraux et l’ensemble des acteurs concernés, vis-à-vis de cette gestion du vivant.




L’image de l’apprenti sorcier ne s’est probablement jamais appliquée avec autant de pertinence que vis-à-vis du comportement de la société occidentale à l’égard du monde vivant. Chaque jour, un événement nous rappelle que ce monde vivant est par définition soumis aux lois de la biologie qui régissent des systèmes fondamentalement complexes. En dehors même des problèmes éthiques (clonage, OGM, etc.), les questions de vache folle, de qualité des eaux, de sécurité en montagne liée à la dégradation et l’inexploitation des terrains, de sécurité nucléaire nous rappellent que l’homme ne peut impunément s’affranchir du complexe nature dont il fait partie intégrante. […]

Dans toutes les dimensions de son activité, l’homme est confronté à des problèmes de qualité du vivant que ce soit son alimentation, son cadre de vie, ses relations aux autres qui s’intègrent dans la problématique générale de la qualité des territoires en tant que simultanément supports de l’activité et milieu de vie des hommes.

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La SICA et le développement local

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur souligne l’intérêt, l’originalité et la modernité de l’outil SICA pour accompagner l’aménagement et l’organisation des territoires ruraux. Contrairement aux outils classiques du développement agricole, la SICA est une structure ouverte à l’ensemble des acteurs ruraux d’où probablement de nouvelles opportunités à rechercher aujourd’hui dans l’appui aux dynamiques de « pays ».




La société d’intérêt collectif agricole a été introduite dans notre droit par la grande Loi du 5 août 1920 qui organisait la société coopérative agricole et la caisse de crédit agricole mutuel. Aux SICA revenait l’équipement rural tel l’électrification rurale, grand projet de l’époque. L’équipement étant un bien collectif territorial, les SICA étaient ouvertes à tous les habitants ruraux, sous réserve que les agriculteurs possèdent la majorité en voix aux assemblées générales.

L’origine de cette grande loi d’organisation rurale se trouve dans l’héroïsme des paysans qui ont supporté le poids principal de la Guerre des tranchées (1914-18). Le « ils ont des droits sur nous » était le signe de la reconnaissance de la Nation, mais il découlait aussi du sentiment que les valeurs rurales ayant permis de tels hommes devaient être sauvegardées en vue du bien commun à venir.

Le souci du législateur était donc de protéger un style de vie si fertile en qualités humaines, que le modèle urbain qui se généralisait pouvait détruire, non par hostilité, mais parce que les critères qu’il génère sont incompatibles avec la spécificité des milieux ruraux.

Par la suite, la modernisation des exploitations agricoles, en agrandissant les surfaces, a poussé à l’exode rural. A un point tel que l’on s’est enfin aperçu qu’agriculteurs et éleveurs, s’ils étaient essentiels à la ruralité, n’en formaient pas la totalité.

Il existe à leurs côtés d’autres catégories sociales qui sont aussi des paysans, c’est-à-dire ceux qui font le pays et participent aux réalités rurales. La raréfaction croissante des agriculteurs et des éleveurs leur redonne une importance relative. Mais il est bien tard. Les concepts urbains juridiques et administratifs ont mis toute leur emprise sur ces acteurs de la ruralité autres qu’agricoles et la cohérence du tissu rural, toutes activités confondues, en est altérée !

Et nos SICA, justement ouvertes à toutes les catégories d’activités rurales, que deviennent-elles dans cette évolution ? Elles ont été totalement éclipsées par la réussite économique de la coopération agricole, par le succès bancaire prodigieux du Crédit Agricole. L’action du crédit et de la coopération agricoles reste certes profitable aux milieux ruraux. Mais en incarnent-ils encore l’esprit selon les critères de la Loi du 5 août 1920 ?

Alors pourquoi ne pas donner à la SICA conçue dès l’origine pour l’équipement rural une vocation particulière pour l’équipement du « pays », tel qu’il est défini par la Loi récente sur l’aménagement du territoire ? En n’oubliant pas bien sûr, que dans la tradition mutualiste, l’organisation d’un tissu social, c’est aussi de l’équipement, puisqu’il s’agit de donner à un milieu de vie les moyens de s’exprimer.

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Des montagnes, des ours et des hommes

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur témoigne des racines de son engagement dans les vallées du Haut-Béarn qui d’une situation de crise face au « problème de l’ours » l’ont conduit à porter une démarche patrimoniale pour ré-impliquer progressivement l’ensemble des acteurs qui revendiquent une responsabilité sur ce territoire où vivent les ours… un processus qui pour l’auteur part du principe que chacun dans son domaine ou sa compétence a quelque chose à faire pour le bien commun.




Je suis fils de berger transhumant. J’habite le village de Lourdios-Ichere dans les Pyrénées Atlantiques. C’est dans une ambiance chaleureuse que mon père nous a inculqués à mon frère, mes deux sœurs et moi une certaine idée du pays. Sans qu’il nous ait jamais donné l’obligation impérieuse d’y rester, j’ai compris ensuite qu’il avait fait ce qu’il fallait pour que nous ne suivions pas le mouvement général des jeunes qui partaient. Chaque fois que je voyais des maisons se fermer, j’avais le cœur serré : c’était une civilisation qui foutait le camp ! Et, d’une certaine manière, par notre silence, nous laissions faire cela.

Lorsqu’il s’est agi de choisir, c’est finalement mon frère qui a repris l’exploitation, le troupeau familial et la transhumance. J’ai été élu maire de ma commune à 21 ans, puis Conseiller Général. Je suis vice-président du Conseil Général, député suppléant. J’ai fait un peu de politique. Mais je n’ai jamais considéré la politique comme une fin en soi. C’est un moyen de réaliser des actions. Comme je ne voulais pas en être dépendant, j’ai créé mon propre bureau d’ingénieurs conseil. J’ai toujours continué à mener cette activité.

Au début de mon mandat de maire, nous avons créé un foyer rural à Lourdios, ce qui nous a permis de beaucoup voyager et de comprendre pas mal de choses. Nous sommes allés en Allemagne, en Irlande, en Autriche, à Cuba, en Egypte, en Israël et, en retour, nous recevions les gens chez nous. Lors de nos escales à Paris, nous retrouvions les copains qui avaient quitté le pays. Ils n’étaient pas partis de gaieté de cœur mais lorsqu’ils venaient au pays, ils affichaient un certain bonheur. A Paris, nous nous sommes vite rendu compte que ce n’était pas très exactement le cas. Paris n’était pas forcément l’Eldorado dont on m’avait parlé. Dans le fond, nous n’avions pas absolument tort de faire le choix de rester au pays. Nous n’étions pas tellement isolés. Nous établissions des liens et des relations lors de nos voyages qui ont donné un grand coup de moral à mon village de 80 habitants : pratiquement tous les jeunes ont décidé de s’y installer.

Nous vivons dans la seule région de France où vivent encore, d’une manière naturelle, quelques ours. Nous trouvions cela assez naturel, même si la cohabitation a toujours été difficile au fil des siècles.

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La goutte d’eau, l’ours et le milieu rural

1996



Comment faire se rencontrer plusieurs représentations d’une même situation ? Comment faire que la recherche de liberté de l’homme et la qualité de la nature se renforcent ? Comment impliquer les hommes face de réalités en mouvement et en interaction ? Comment susciter le changement de comportement d’un ensemble d’acteurs ? Dans cet article, l’auteur retrace les principaux constats et questionnements qui l’ont conduit à formaliser l’approche patrimoniale.




S’agissant de la même nappe phréatique, une première constatation assez curieuse…

Pour certains, les « économistes », une goutte d’eau est une ressource économique. Leur langage n’est qu’économique. Pour d’autres, les écologistes, c’est un milieu de vie. Ils proposent un discours écologique. Pour d’autres encore, les « technico-administratifs », c’est à la fois une ressource économique et un milieu de vie, mais en tout cas, c’est toujours un objet de gestion publique. Il faut donc lui appliquer des règles publiques dans le cadre d’une approche administrative.

Pourtant, c’est la même goutte d’eau ! L’eau pose un problème tout simple : elle a une multitude de dimensions. Une multitude de personnes sont en relation avec elle. Mais leurs différents regards sur l’eau ne se rencontrent pas, ne s’enrichissent nulle part et, pire, ils se désorganisent les uns les autres.

Un de nos gros problèmes aujourd’hui, c’est d’admettre que le mot « eau » a un contenu sémantique très divers selon les acteurs, mais que c’est de la même eau dont il s’agit.

Deuxième fait assez bizarre.

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Une gestion en bien commun de leur milieu de vie par des hommes responsables, élément clef du retour à l’équilibre de notre société

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur précise les principes et objectifs de l’action de Sol et Civilisation, tournée vers un rééquilibrage de la société qui se fonde sur un comportement nouveau des acteurs. L’objectif est bien de promouvoir un Homme actif et responsable et pour cela d’explorer de nouvelles méthodes et de nouveaux outils pour que l’Homme puisse être pleinement acteur de son propre développement. Deux exigences liées ensemble : la recherche-action!




Un rééquilibrage de la société exige un comportement nouveau des acteurs

Dans la vie des individus et des sociétés, comme en physique, le déséquilibre est souvent facteur de mouvement et à ce titre, peut procurer des effets positifs. Cependant, lorsqu’il affecte la société de manière excessive, il engendre des conséquences négatives, souvent cumulatives, qu’il devient difficile de surmonter.

Beaucoup d’indices conduisent à penser que notre société ne parvient plus, par les modes de raisonnement et les méthodes en vigueur, à juguler une évolution inexorable vers un démantèlement qui, après avoir frappé la société dans son organisation, atteint les individus dans leur comportement social.

S’il est de bon ton d’incriminer le mode d’organisation dominant actuel, qualifié de libéralisme et son corollaire la mondialisation permise par le progrès des techniques de communication et de transport, il faut considérer que ces deux phénomènes ne sont que des facteurs d’accélération d’un processus entamé de longue date.

Sol et Civilisation a en effet déjà exprimé l’idée qu’une des origines de cette situation est à rechercher dans la position devenue dominante du système urbano-industriel quant à son influence sur les modes d’organisation et de gestion de notre société.

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