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Vers un projet agricole pour la ville nouvelle de Sénart

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur retrace à grands traits l’histoire de la ville nouvelle de Sénart et de la place progressive qu’y ont pris les agriculteurs et l’agriculture. C’est ainsi que l’auteur décrit une situation atypique qui mixe agriculture et ville et nécessite de plus en plus de penser le projet agricole comme un projet dans la ville, voire même comme une partie du projet de ville. A travers ce cheminement, l’auteur éclaire les voies de relations nouvelles entre les agriculteurs et les habitants d’un territoire très urbanisé.




A travers mon témoignage, je souhaite avant tout vous faire partager l’histoire singulière de la plaine de Sénart et surtout le ressenti de tous les hommes qui l’habitent. Comment ils ont ressenti le choc de l’urbanisation ? Qu’est-ce que cela a impliqué dans leur façon de vivre ? Et puis comment, aujourd’hui, nous tentons ensemble une reconstruction ?

Une terre généreuse

Sénart, située à 30 kilomètres au Sud-est de Paris, étalée sur 2 départements – l’Essonne et la Seine et Marne – constitue un périmètre de 12000 hectares. Ses sols, d’une qualité agricole exceptionnelle – plus d’un mètre de limon sur les calcaires de Brie – sont assis sur l’énorme nappe de Champigny qui abreuve Paris et la région parisienne. Toujours les hommes ont cultivé cette terre briarde, et il faut dire que tout y pousse dans les meilleures conditions. La forêt de Sénart, qui fait partie du territoire, a constitué pendant longtemps une réserve de chasse du roi. C’était une forêt très giboyeuse, le roi s’y rendait par la Seine puis y accédait à travers une allée royale qui traverse champs et forêt. Il faut ajouter aussi que l’agriculture qui a été pratiquée sur ces territoires a toujours nourri Paris en farine, en blé, en lait, en viande, en foin, et cela pour la simple et bonne raison que ce territoire était situé à une journée de charrette à cheval de Paris, pour l’aller et le retour.

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La démarche patrimoniale

2006



Dans cet article, les auteurs synthétisent les grandes lignes de la démarche patrimoniale. Centrée sur la gestion du vivant donc la gestion de la complexité, la démarche patrimoniale permet de faire évoluer le comportement d’un ensemble d’acteurs en interaction face à un problème. En illustrant la définition de la « gestion de la qualité du vivant » avec la gestion d’une rivière, les auteurs distinguent les limites des approches universalistes actuelles et propose d’engager une autre voie, celle de l’approche patrimoniale pour accompagner les acteurs vers une meilleure de la gestion du vivant.




La gestion du vivant, un enjeu majeur pour notre société

Tout au long de son parcours personnel et professionnel, Henry Ollagnon s’est intéressé à la question de la gestion du vivant par les hommes à travers de nombreux sujets : la gestion des espèces, des ressources et des milieux naturels, la gestion des territoires, la gestion des crises, l’ingénierie des projets complexes, l’adaptation stratégique des gestionnaires du vivant au développement durable. Pour lui, le vivant émerge aujourd’hui comme un révélateur d’une crise profonde de nos sociétés, basée sur une conception de la modernité qui exclue tout ce qui est complexe, circulant, évolutif pour le réduire à du mesurable, causal, stable. Cette crise du vivant se manifeste, pour de nombreux acteurs publics et privés, par des problèmes nouveaux, mais suscite aussi des projets pour un renouvellement de la gestion des territoires, des produits et de la nature. Rechercher les conditions et les moyens d’une meilleure gestion de la qualité du vivant n’est pas seulement, se confronter à des problèmes ou monter des projets, c’est aussi entreprendre un chemin original pour la connaissance et l’action en univers complexe. Henry Ollagnon a ainsi exposé les concepts et les méthodes d’une « gestion patrimoniale de la qualité du vivant ».

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Œconomie et territoire, deux retours aux sources pour nous projeter dans le 21e siècle

2009



Dans cet article, l’auteur nous invite à revenir aux sources de « l’économie », c’est à dire à l’oeconomie comme l’art de penser les relations entre les choses et entre les hommes. Pour l’auteur, ce retour à l’oeconomie est évidemment complémentaire d’un retour au territoire, échelle d’organisation du développement économie et social, mais aussi et probablement surtout parce que l’économie réelle repose sur la confiance, dont le territoire est l’un des îlots.




Jusqu’au milieu du 18e siècle ce n’est pas le mot économie qui était utilisé pour désigner ce que l’on entend aujourd’hui par ce terme, l’organisation collective du système de production et d’échange qui lie les hommes et femmes entre eux et nous relie à la planète. C’était le mot œconomie.

Comme le dit fort bien le fameux botaniste Karl Von Linné (1707-1778) dans son livre intitulé Principes de l’œconomie, publié en 1752, l’œconomie, c’est « l’art de préparer des choses naturelles à notre usage, l’art de tirer parti de tous les biens de la nature ». Les « lois de l’œconomie » auxquelles il fait allusion dans son livre ne sont pas ce que nous entendons aujourd’hui sous ce terme et ce qui est enseigné sur les bancs de l’université : le fonctionnement des marchés, la substitution du capital au travail ou encore de la théorie de la monnaie. Dans un monde encore largement dominé par la production agricole, l’œconomie est l’art de tirer parti de la nature ou, comme on le disait à l’époque, l’art d’être « ménager de la nature ». Notre connaissance des lois physiques ou, comme on dirait maintenant, des écosystèmes, est le moyen pour chaque peuple de tirer parti au mieux des ressources propres à chaque contexte et à chaque pays. Plus d’un siècle plus tôt, le Français Antoine de Montchrestien (1575-1621) avait écrit en 1615 un Traité de l’œconomie politique, défini comme « l’art de gérer et les hommes et les choses ». Il parle même de « mesnagerie publique » d’où va dériver aussi bien l’expression « économie ménagère » que le terme moderne de management. L’œconomie est alors l’art de penser les relations entre les choses, les relations entre les hommes.

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Vive l’innovation territoriale !

2009



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur nous invite à donner une dimension nouvelle au territoire. Certes il est un espace incontournable de rencontre et le socle d’un développement fondé sur la mise en mouvement des hommes, mais il peut aussi être le creuset de l’innovation pour mieux agir ensemble…




Crise énergétique, gestion des ressources naturelles, biodiversité, réchauffement climatique, les espaces ruraux sont chaque jour interpellés par les nouveaux défis écologiques planétaires et doivent répondre, surtout en Europe, à des attentes sociétales de plus en plus pressantes. Parallèlement, leur attractivité nouvelle mais également l’ouverture des marchés, notamment agricoles, modifient en profondeur les moteurs de leur économie. Les activités des services et plus largement l’économie résidentielle deviennent ainsi prépondérantes dans certaines régions alors même que les filières agricoles doivent trouver partout des ressorts de compétitivité et d’innovation. Pourtant, si la ruralité a toujours connu le mouvement, la rapidité des évolutions actuelles lui demande aujourd’hui un effort d’adaptation sans précédant.

Depuis plusieurs années, le territoire apparaît comme un levier pertinent pour répondre à cette nouvelle donne où se déploient la globalisation des enjeux et la mondialisation marchande. La politique des Pays, les Pôles d’excellence rurale, les Pôles de compétitivité, les programmes Leader européens confirment ainsi l’intérêt des pouvoirs publics pour les dynamiques locales où se mobilisent l’ensemble des volontés. Nous défendons à Sol et Civilisation cette approche territoriale du développement tant elle permet l’intégration des problématiques et la mise en mouvement des hommes. Notre dernier Cahier, paru ce printemps, reprend cette question et montre combien le territoire, notamment en milieu rural, reste effectivement l’un des meilleurs vecteurs de développement, pour peu que l’on considère le développement comme la capacité à progresser ensemble pour prendre en charge de manière coordonnée et cohérente un ensemble de problèmes hétérogènes.

La complexification des enjeux, l’emboîtement des échelons de décision, la multiplication des parties prenantes demandent néanmoins aujourd’hui aux acteurs d’accomplir un saut qualitatif dans la construction de leurs réponses tant individuelles que collectives. Le territoire ne peut plus en effet se limiter à un espace de rencontre et d’élaboration de projets transversaux, il doit être désormais davantage le creuset de l’innovation, qu’elle soit technique ou organisationnelle, pour mieux agir ensemble, anticiper et créer des nouvelles valeurs économiques, sociales et environnementales.

Pour éclairer ce débat, nous avons organisé début juin avec le Groupe Monde Rural une matinée de débat et d’échanges. Cette Lettre reprend pour partie les points de vue et les témoignages qui s’y sont exprimés, que nous complétons avec la présentation d’une démarche territoriale remarquable au Luxembourg dans la commune de Beckerich.

La ruralité montre encore une fois qu’elle reste inventive et porteuse de solutions nouvelles. Dans cette période de crise où il faut se réinventer, les territoires ruraux restent certainement les meilleurs alliés pour rebondir et contribuer à construire de nouveaux équilibres. Nous reprendrons et élargirons ce débat lors de nos prochaines assises, le 15 octobre prochain.

D’ici là, je vous souhaite une bonne lecture et un bon été.

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La gestion du vivant : une stratégie d’avenir pour la société et l’agriculture

2005



Dans cet article, l’auteur recherche les conditions pour impliquer les agriculteurs et l’agriculture au cœur du projet de développement durable que recherche la société. En revenant sur les critères courants de développement durable, il propose d’éclairer une voie nouvelle fondée sur la prise en charge du vivant dans une approche de qualité totale. Comment les agriculteurs peuvent-ils se saisir du rôle stratégique qu’ils peuvent y jouer ?




L’agriculture est-elle une activité d’avenir en France et en Europe, comme ailleurs dans les territoires du monde ? Les agriculteurs peuvent-ils répondre seuls à cette question ? La société fait-elle le lien, à travers sa recherche de développement durable, entre la qualité du vivant qu’elle recherche et l’agriculture ?

Au carrefour de l’alimentation, de la gestion de la qualité de la nature, de l’ambiance des territoires, les agriculteurs ont potentiellement un rôle à jouer. Mais, l’agriculture est-elle ainsi reconnue comme une activité de gestion du vivant ? Cette reconnaissance va de moins en moins de soi. Il faut des promoteurs, des chemins, des actes pour que la société se dote d’une véritable gestion de la qualité du vivant, dans chaque territoire de la biosphère.

N’est-ce pas une vaste et nécessaire ambition pour les agriculteurs que de promouvoir, de façon opérationnelle, par une stratégie de la qualité totale, une agriculture durable dans les territoires du monde ?

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Pour une gestion en bien commun du territoire du Haut-Béarn

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur présente le territoire de l’Institution Patrimoniale du Haut-Béarn, le « pays des hommes et des ours », et rappelle les les origines, les objectifs, et les missions de cette instance : « se concerter, décider et agir ensemble, pour faire en sorte que chacun retrouve sa place, sa dignité, et que sa parole serve au bien commun pour tout le territoire ».




Au pays des hommes et des ours

Le territoire de l’Institution Patrimoniale du Haut-Béarn se situe dans le vaste ensemble pyrénéen, plus précisément dans les Pyrénées-Atlantiques, autour de trois vallées d’altitude : à l’est la Vallée d’Ossau qui débouche sur l’Espagne par le col du Pourtalet, la vallée d’Aspe par le tunnel du Somport, et la vallée du Barétous qui débouche sur l’Espagne par le col de la Pierre Saint-Martin. Il est composé de 20 communes toutes signataires de la « Charte de développement durable des vallées béarnaises et de protection de l’ours ». Un territoire de 6600 habitants pour une superficie de 100000 hectares. Le Parc National, réparti sur le département des Hautes-Pyrénées (2/3) et les vallées du Haut-Béarn (1/3), couvre 15 % de ce territoire.

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Le développement territorial : petite ou grande histoire ?

2002



Dans cet article, l’auteur revient sur l’émergence et l’affirmation du concept de développement territorial depuis le milieu du XXème siècle. De l’aménagement du territoire, au développement territorial en passant par l’action locale, il souligne les acquis successifs qui permettent de mieux préciser les enjeux et les défis à relever en ce début de XXIème siècle.




Aménagement et développement local, une histoire dominée par les changements structurels de la France et de l’Europe.

Première partie : De la reconstruction à l’écroulement de l’économie traditionnelle

Cette phase peut se scinder en trois périodes. De 1947 à 1968, […] le développement territorial n’existe pas, le rural hors agricole est l’espace restant et l’agriculture devient le pilier des exportations. De 1968 à 1975, […] émerge une forte résistance du monde rural et une montée des problèmes des problèmes urbains (chômage, choc pétrolier, contrat de pays, conservatoire du littoral). De 1975 à 1981, […] la montée des terroirs apparait sous cet aspect autant comme un refuge que comme une véritable alternative.

Deuxième partie: Les territoires à l’épreuve des problèmes économiques (de 1981 à 2000).

De 1981 à 1987, […] le projet de territoire s’efface derrière les territoires de projet et le local doit gérer socialement la déprise économique et humaine. De 987 à 1995, […] le « local » se cherche avec l’atténuation du clivage urbain/rural. De 1995 à aujourd’hui, […] le pays devient un échelon reconnu de concertation et d’émergence confronté à l’organisation d’un pouvoir intercommunal naissant.

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L’audit patrimonial

1996



Présentation succincte de la démarche d’audit patrimonial




L’audit patrimonial appliqué au développement rural est un outil qui permet une approche « clinique » de la prise en charge d’un territoire par ses habitants. La notion de patrimoine est ici prise au sens large.

L’audit patrimonial est une démarche de diagnostic et de prospective réalisée en commun par tous les acteurs concernés par un problème. En effet, il permet d’établir une communication entre toutes les personnes directement ou indirectement impliquées pour faire ensemble le diagnostic et l’expertise de la qualité de leur milieu de vie, au cours d’entretiens reposant sur une grille d’analyse comportant quatre registres :

  • Identification des problèmes : quel(s) problème(s) ? quels acteurs concernés ?

  • Diagnostic de l’action engagée : quels sont les acteurs engagés dans la résolution du problème ? quelles réponses ont jusque là été apportées ? quel bilan provisoire peut-on dresser ?

  • Prospective et enjeux : évolution des problèmes et des réponses, dans le temps et dans l’espace, établissement de trois scénarii (positif, tendanciel, négatif).

  • propositions d’Action : propositions techniques et relationnelles, chemins de changement envisageables, engagement de chacun ?

L’évaluation de l’audit patrimonial se mesure à l’engagement qu’il a suscité chez les personnes qui ont été auditées.

L’audit patrimonial réalisé en Ségala Limargue a bénéficié du concours des étudiants de l’Agro Paris-Grignon (AgroParisTech) et de Sol et Civilisation, très intéressée par la découverte et l’expérimentation de cette démarche novatrice.

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L’audit patrimonial, un nouvel outil au service du développement local

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur raconte l’histoire d’un petit terroir déshérité du Lot qui se découvre une identité positive et dont la population se reprend à croire en elle-même…




L’assemblée générale de l’Association Ségala Limargue (ASL) se déroule comme à son habitude. Une vingtaine d’élus sont présents, ainsi qu’une dizaine de « bonnes volontés ». Tout se passe bien : les activités se sont maintenues, les comptes sont équilibrés. Pourquoi donc l’ambiance est-elle si morose ?

L’ASL est une association de pays regroupant 41 communes et qui œuvre depuis déjà 12 ans pour le développement de son territoire. Elle mène des actions d’ordre économique, culturel et social. Elle a d’ailleurs le statut de centre social. Quelle longue route ! Que de batailles ! Que de dossiers (contrat de pays, charte intercommunale, etc.) ! Que de satisfactions aussi ! Alors pourquoi donc l’ambiance est-elle morose ?

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Des démarches de gestion en commun pour une démocratie réelle et vivante

1999



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur propose de remettre le lien entre les hommes au cœur du projet de société, d’où l’importance de replacer les hommes, citoyens, élus ou chefs d’entreprise, en condition d’exercer leurs responsabilités vis-à-vis de la communauté…




La France va mieux nous disent les médias : le moral des ménages et leur tendance à consommer sont en hausse ! Mais, sur une part croissante du territoire, l’insécurité se développe, le nombre de suicides de jeunes ne cesse d’augmenter, le cortège des exclus économiques, des exclus scolaires grossit. Les actes de violence se multiplient, tout comme les procès en tout genre et à tout propos qui font de tout détenteur d’une parcelle de responsabilité un coupable potentiel de n’importe quel incident.

Sommes-nous vraiment incapables de prendre conscience que notre société évolue vers une forme déjà connue pour avoir généré ailleurs ce type de symptômes ? Est-ce vraiment cela que nous voulons ou ne sommes-nous capables que de la subir ?

Tout concourt à rompre les liens directs entre les hommes et c’est là la source du mal : les familles sont éparpillées, l’extrême spécialisation et donc le fractionnement caractérisent les activités professionnelles, le poids croissant des procédures cantonne les acteurs des territoires dans une dépendance vis à vis d’en hautes. La rationalité administrative se substitue partout au bon sens et à l’expérience de vie des hommes. La mort annoncée des communes n’en est-elle pas une illustration patente ? Comment oser parler de démocratie lorsqu’on en supprime la forme d’expression la plus basique et que se dilue la responsabilité des individus vis-à-vis de la communauté ? Aurait-on oublié que toute personne doit pouvoir s’assumer personnellement et se responsabiliser pour vivre en société ?

Il nous paraît essentiel de mettre en évidence qu’il n’y a pas de fatalité, qu’il y a aussi d’autres voies que celle des solutions techniques à des problèmes qui ne le sont pas.

Ce numéro 11 de la Lettre vous présente des démarches qui visent à replacer les hommes, en tant que citoyens, élus ou chefs d’entreprise, en condition d’exercer leurs responsabilités vis à vis de la communauté ; en se mettant en position de négocier et de construire ensemble leur avenir, ils réussissent ce que ni chacun, ni l’Etat ne peut réaliser seul.

Je suis certain que c’est en facilitant ces démarches de gestion en bien commun, en libérant les énergies des hommes, que la facture sociale que tous déplorent sans jamais imaginer une autre solution que technique, se résorbera. C’est ainsi que nous recréerons les bases d’une démocratie réelle et vivante dans notre pays.

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