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L’énergie renouvelable au coeur du développement d’un territoire rural, l’exemple du Mené

2010



Cet article fait le point sur les initiatives et les projets portés par les acteurs du territoire du Mené qu’ont présenté Dominique ROCABOY et Jacky AIGNEL lors des Assises 2007 de Sol et Civilisation. Il dégage les différentes innovations dont les acteurs ont fait preuve pour mener à bien ces projets. Ces innovations sont au coeur du projet de territoire et sont révélatrices d’un territoire vivant et ouvert.




Situé au centre du triangle formé par les axes Rennes à Brest, Saint Brieuc à Vannes et Rennes à Quimper, le territoire du Mené a une superficie de 163,2 km² soit à titre de comparaison 50% plus étendue que la ville de Paris pour une population de 6309 habitants. Le Mené est en effet un territoire rural caractérisé par le poids prépondérant de l’activité agricole et un habitat très dispersé. Dans les années 60, les transformations agricoles et le vieillissement de la population ont entraîné le territoire dans un cercle vicieux ; déprise de l’activité agricole, pertes de population et d’actifs, moindre attractivité.

Face à cette situation, les élus et citoyens du territoire ont cherché à inverser la tendance et tenté de promouvoir leur territoire à travers des projets dont la portée et le cadre transcendent les filières et les compétences établies. Il s’agissait de faire émerger les projets dont peuvent s’emparer l’ensemble des acteurs du territoire pour construire un avenir commun. Ces projets se sont lentement montés au fil des 40 dernières années notamment dans le secteur culturel et économique. Ce temps a aussi permis aux habitants de s’emparer des problématiques du territoire et de s’y investir. Le territoire est ainsi passé par de nombreuses étapes pour maintenant s’inscrire dans une logique de développement durable et d’équilibre énergétique.

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Préserver les lieux où peut se créer le lien social

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur distingue trois niveaux pour prendre en charge le développement des milieux ruraux : la commune comme lieu de vie, la communauté de communes comme lieu de coopération, le territoire comme espace de projet commun.




Depuis 40 ans, l’administration centrale essaie, par divers moyens, de réduire fortement le nombre de communes dans notre pays. 36 000 communes, pour elle, c’est un non sens, d’où cet acharnement, direct ou indirect, par la voie législative, administrative ou financière à vouloir imposer une autre voie. Le schéma national d’aménagement du territoire devant être remis sur le métier, il paraît utile de préciser quelques lignes de réflexion de fond. Ma réflexion est davantage orientée sur le milieu rural, où les orientations à venir auront le plus d’incidence. Il est nécessaire de distinguer trois niveaux de responsabilité qui interfèrent et s’inscrivent sur des territoires pertinents :

  • la communauté de vie : la commune

  • la communauté de gestion : la coopération intercommunale

  • la communauté de projet : le Pays.

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Pour une approche stratégique du bien commun

1998



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’appréhender la prise en charge des biens communs, tels que la gestion du vivant, avec de nouvelles approches qui visent à organiser la négociation autour des attentes multiples des acteurs concernés.




Un certain nombre de signaux montrent que notre façon d’agir ensemble nous rend incapables de traiter certaines réalités. Nous ne savons pas gérer la qualité des eaux souterraines en Alsace, ni la qualité de l’eau d’un bassin versant. Nous ne savons agir que par la contrainte, par l’interdiction. Mais chacun a de telles marges de liberté et de non implication vis-à-vis d’une norme, quelle qu’elle soft, que ce système de contraintes peut être parfaitement inefficace pour gérer des réalités comme la qualité de l’eau, la qualité de la vie. Les acteurs ne s’impliquent que s’ils en ont envie dans une action qu’ils jugent légitime et efficace. Ainsi, dans le secteur des entreprises, la gestion de la qualité a évolué. Il y a 30 ans, la demande de produits était telle qu’une entreprise pouvait être un « offreur systématique » et imposer aux clients sa conception de la qualité. Les gens étaient contents d’avoir une 2 CV, même s’il fallait attendre 3 ans. Par la suite, un autre équilibre entre l’offre et la demande s’est établi. Les consommateurs ont alors voulu une amélioration du produit. Puis de nouveaux acteurs se sont imposés dans la conception de la qualité du produit : les salariés, les écologistes étudiant l’impact de l’entreprise sur l’environnement, l’actionnaire se demandant si le profit serait durable, etc.

L’entreprise, d’acteur strictement productif, est aujourd’hui tenue de devenir beaucoup plus stratégique. Elle doit mobiliser ses hommes. Elle ne peut plus avoir 5% de gens « intelligents » et 95% « d’exécutants ». Elle a besoin de l’intelligence de tous. Et cette intelligence ne se libère que par la libre adhésion. La mobiliser suppose énormément de savoir, de précautions. La qualité s’impose aujourd’hui comme un bien commun qui requiert une approche stratégique.

Les territoires sont l’objet d’offres et de demandes de qualité. Pour Henry Ollagnon, on ne peut vraiment négocier que lorsqu’on est à la fois offreur et demandeur de qualité. Si le monde rural n’est que le lieu d’un marchandage entre zones et fonctions, il sera dépouillé parce qu’il ne représente que 10% de la population. Si par contre, chacun se sent à la fois offreur et demandeur d’une qualité, par exemple de la santé humaine et de l’épanouissement de l’homme, alors des négociations peuvent s’engager. C’est ce qui se passe en Haut Béarn ou à Olmanie (Biélorussie).

Pour engager ce processus, on peut mobiliser les ressorts patrimoniaux que chacun a en lui. Si à l’intérieur de l’entreprise, il n’y a pas un minimum d’intérêt commun, si le salarié ne se sent pas acteur du succès financier de l’entreprise, on ne pourra ni en parler avec lui, ni mobiliser son adhésion.

Engager de telles négociations nécessite une approche stratégique. Nous avons cru que nous pourrions prendre tous les problèmes en charge dans le cadre privé ou dans le cadre public. Mais certains éléments ne peuvent être gérés dans leur globalité ni dans l’un, ni dans l’autre cadre. L’administration doit administrer sous régulation politique, les chefs d’entreprises doivent travailler dans le cadre de la propriété privée. Par contre, d’autres enjeux, qui relèvent du bien commun comme la gestion du vivant nécessitent d’engager des négociations stratégiques dans un cadre contractuel nouveau.

Henry Ollagnon conclut : « nous constatons l’émergence de nouvelles attentes stratégiques à satisfaire. Il faut donc construire un juste équilibre entre les modes de négociation classique et ceux de la négociation coopérative. Cela suppose la mise en place de nouvelles approches, la création de nouveaux métiers pour traiter les problèmes du vivant. Des outils existent pour cela ».

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Agriculture, société, territoires : des liens porteurs de richesses

2005



Dans cette synthèse de colloque, l’auteur propose de considérer le territoire comme un point de rencontre entre agriculture et société. Parce qu’il est un socle de relations, un espace de ressources et un lieu stratégique pour envisager le développement économique. Ceci d’autant plus que les termes d’un nouveau pacte entre agriculture et société se font jour.




Par ce colloque, nous souhaitions illustrer les relations « agriculture-société » en présentant trois cas territoriaux différents, et nous interroger alors sur la place du territoire dans cette relation. Avec les exemples du vignoble de Marcillac, de la coopérative SICASELI et du territoire sénartais, quelques lignes de force sont apparues.

Le territoire reste le socle indispensable pour activer ou réactiver les relations entre les agriculteurs et les autres acteurs de la société.

Il n’y a certes pas et il ne peut y avoir de schéma unique. Chaque territoire, en fonction de sa géographie, de son histoire, de ses contextes socio-économiques, doit définir sa propre stratégie et engager des démarches adaptées. Toutefois, c’est bien dans la proximité que se nouent les relations et les coopérations nécessaires entre tous les acteurs : acteurs économiques, acteurs politiques et acteurs associatifs. Le territoire est alors le support de ces relations et un capital essentiel à valoriser pour le développement.

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Quelle place pour les territoires ruraux ?

2003



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose une grille de lecture pour guider l’évolution de la place des territoires ruraux dans les équilibres de société. Pour répondre pleinement à leurs trois fonctions économique, naturel et résidentielle, il s’agit d’accompagner l’évolution des relations ville-campagne mais aussi l’organisation des territoires ruraux eux-mêmes, en particulier au niveau de la commune et des pays.




Les ruraux ont besoin d’un message […] fort, clair et cohérent pour se situer dans un monde qui se cherche de nouveaux modes de vivre ensemble. L’avenir des territoires ruraux dépend de l’articulation qui sera trouvée entre les trois fonctions principales que la société du XXIe siècle attend de ses campagnes :

  • un espace économique à valoriser,

  • un espace naturel à protéger,

  • un espace résidentiel à aménager.

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Remettre en valeur des fonds de vallées livrés à la friche

1999



Cet article reprend l’intervention de Pierre GRANDADAM lors d’une rencontre sur les problèmes complexes liés au vivant. L’auteur raconte comment, dans un partenariat étroit avec les acteurs du territoire (agriculteurs, propriétaires et habitants), les élus locaux ont initié la remise en valeur des fonds de vallées de la Haute-Bruche. Etape par étape, des outils comme l’association foncière pastorale ont été mobilisé et ont permis d’atteindre des résultats déjà satisfaisants, en particulier pour la qualité du paysage.




Pierre Grandadam est maire d’une commune qui couvre 2300 hectares dans cette vallée des Vosges. Un seul agriculteur y vit encore. Progressivement l’industrie textile et bon nombre d’exploitations agricoles ont disparu. L’espace s’est désagrégé. Les habitants se sont résignés à accepter ces espaces délaissés. Chacun s’est habitué à la friche, a perdu la volonté d’occuper l’espace. L’image symbole de cette évolution est assez désolante : des friches et des zones marécageuses dans laquelle les sapins, pieds dans l’eau toute l’année, crèvent l’un après l’autre.

En 1980, le District a souhaité initier une dynamique autour du paysage, afin de rouvrir les fonds de vallées, de les remettre en valeur.

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Des montagnes, des ours et des hommes

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur témoigne des racines de son engagement dans les vallées du Haut-Béarn qui d’une situation de crise face au « problème de l’ours » l’ont conduit à porter une démarche patrimoniale pour ré-impliquer progressivement l’ensemble des acteurs qui revendiquent une responsabilité sur ce territoire où vivent les ours… un processus qui pour l’auteur part du principe que chacun dans son domaine ou sa compétence a quelque chose à faire pour le bien commun.




Je suis fils de berger transhumant. J’habite le village de Lourdios-Ichere dans les Pyrénées Atlantiques. C’est dans une ambiance chaleureuse que mon père nous a inculqués à mon frère, mes deux sœurs et moi une certaine idée du pays. Sans qu’il nous ait jamais donné l’obligation impérieuse d’y rester, j’ai compris ensuite qu’il avait fait ce qu’il fallait pour que nous ne suivions pas le mouvement général des jeunes qui partaient. Chaque fois que je voyais des maisons se fermer, j’avais le cœur serré : c’était une civilisation qui foutait le camp ! Et, d’une certaine manière, par notre silence, nous laissions faire cela.

Lorsqu’il s’est agi de choisir, c’est finalement mon frère qui a repris l’exploitation, le troupeau familial et la transhumance. J’ai été élu maire de ma commune à 21 ans, puis Conseiller Général. Je suis vice-président du Conseil Général, député suppléant. J’ai fait un peu de politique. Mais je n’ai jamais considéré la politique comme une fin en soi. C’est un moyen de réaliser des actions. Comme je ne voulais pas en être dépendant, j’ai créé mon propre bureau d’ingénieurs conseil. J’ai toujours continué à mener cette activité.

Au début de mon mandat de maire, nous avons créé un foyer rural à Lourdios, ce qui nous a permis de beaucoup voyager et de comprendre pas mal de choses. Nous sommes allés en Allemagne, en Irlande, en Autriche, à Cuba, en Egypte, en Israël et, en retour, nous recevions les gens chez nous. Lors de nos escales à Paris, nous retrouvions les copains qui avaient quitté le pays. Ils n’étaient pas partis de gaieté de cœur mais lorsqu’ils venaient au pays, ils affichaient un certain bonheur. A Paris, nous nous sommes vite rendu compte que ce n’était pas très exactement le cas. Paris n’était pas forcément l’Eldorado dont on m’avait parlé. Dans le fond, nous n’avions pas absolument tort de faire le choix de rester au pays. Nous n’étions pas tellement isolés. Nous établissions des liens et des relations lors de nos voyages qui ont donné un grand coup de moral à mon village de 80 habitants : pratiquement tous les jeunes ont décidé de s’y installer.

Nous vivons dans la seule région de France où vivent encore, d’une manière naturelle, quelques ours. Nous trouvions cela assez naturel, même si la cohabitation a toujours été difficile au fil des siècles.

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Une gestion en bien commun de leur milieu de vie par des hommes responsables, élément clef du retour à l’équilibre de notre société

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur précise les principes et objectifs de l’action de Sol et Civilisation, tournée vers un rééquilibrage de la société qui se fonde sur un comportement nouveau des acteurs. L’objectif est bien de promouvoir un Homme actif et responsable et pour cela d’explorer de nouvelles méthodes et de nouveaux outils pour que l’Homme puisse être pleinement acteur de son propre développement. Deux exigences liées ensemble : la recherche-action!




Un rééquilibrage de la société exige un comportement nouveau des acteurs

Dans la vie des individus et des sociétés, comme en physique, le déséquilibre est souvent facteur de mouvement et à ce titre, peut procurer des effets positifs. Cependant, lorsqu’il affecte la société de manière excessive, il engendre des conséquences négatives, souvent cumulatives, qu’il devient difficile de surmonter.

Beaucoup d’indices conduisent à penser que notre société ne parvient plus, par les modes de raisonnement et les méthodes en vigueur, à juguler une évolution inexorable vers un démantèlement qui, après avoir frappé la société dans son organisation, atteint les individus dans leur comportement social.

S’il est de bon ton d’incriminer le mode d’organisation dominant actuel, qualifié de libéralisme et son corollaire la mondialisation permise par le progrès des techniques de communication et de transport, il faut considérer que ces deux phénomènes ne sont que des facteurs d’accélération d’un processus entamé de longue date.

Sol et Civilisation a en effet déjà exprimé l’idée qu’une des origines de cette situation est à rechercher dans la position devenue dominante du système urbano-industriel quant à son influence sur les modes d’organisation et de gestion de notre société.

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Vers un projet agricole pour la ville nouvelle de Sénart

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur retrace à grands traits l’histoire de la ville nouvelle de Sénart et de la place progressive qu’y ont pris les agriculteurs et l’agriculture. C’est ainsi que l’auteur décrit une situation atypique qui mixe agriculture et ville et nécessite de plus en plus de penser le projet agricole comme un projet dans la ville, voire même comme une partie du projet de ville. A travers ce cheminement, l’auteur éclaire les voies de relations nouvelles entre les agriculteurs et les habitants d’un territoire très urbanisé.




A travers mon témoignage, je souhaite avant tout vous faire partager l’histoire singulière de la plaine de Sénart et surtout le ressenti de tous les hommes qui l’habitent. Comment ils ont ressenti le choc de l’urbanisation ? Qu’est-ce que cela a impliqué dans leur façon de vivre ? Et puis comment, aujourd’hui, nous tentons ensemble une reconstruction ?

Une terre généreuse

Sénart, située à 30 kilomètres au Sud-est de Paris, étalée sur 2 départements – l’Essonne et la Seine et Marne – constitue un périmètre de 12000 hectares. Ses sols, d’une qualité agricole exceptionnelle – plus d’un mètre de limon sur les calcaires de Brie – sont assis sur l’énorme nappe de Champigny qui abreuve Paris et la région parisienne. Toujours les hommes ont cultivé cette terre briarde, et il faut dire que tout y pousse dans les meilleures conditions. La forêt de Sénart, qui fait partie du territoire, a constitué pendant longtemps une réserve de chasse du roi. C’était une forêt très giboyeuse, le roi s’y rendait par la Seine puis y accédait à travers une allée royale qui traverse champs et forêt. Il faut ajouter aussi que l’agriculture qui a été pratiquée sur ces territoires a toujours nourri Paris en farine, en blé, en lait, en viande, en foin, et cela pour la simple et bonne raison que ce territoire était situé à une journée de charrette à cheval de Paris, pour l’aller et le retour.

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Œconomie et territoire, deux retours aux sources pour nous projeter dans le 21e siècle

2009



Dans cet article, l’auteur nous invite à revenir aux sources de « l’économie », c’est à dire à l’oeconomie comme l’art de penser les relations entre les choses et entre les hommes. Pour l’auteur, ce retour à l’oeconomie est évidemment complémentaire d’un retour au territoire, échelle d’organisation du développement économie et social, mais aussi et probablement surtout parce que l’économie réelle repose sur la confiance, dont le territoire est l’un des îlots.




Jusqu’au milieu du 18e siècle ce n’est pas le mot économie qui était utilisé pour désigner ce que l’on entend aujourd’hui par ce terme, l’organisation collective du système de production et d’échange qui lie les hommes et femmes entre eux et nous relie à la planète. C’était le mot œconomie.

Comme le dit fort bien le fameux botaniste Karl Von Linné (1707-1778) dans son livre intitulé Principes de l’œconomie, publié en 1752, l’œconomie, c’est « l’art de préparer des choses naturelles à notre usage, l’art de tirer parti de tous les biens de la nature ». Les « lois de l’œconomie » auxquelles il fait allusion dans son livre ne sont pas ce que nous entendons aujourd’hui sous ce terme et ce qui est enseigné sur les bancs de l’université : le fonctionnement des marchés, la substitution du capital au travail ou encore de la théorie de la monnaie. Dans un monde encore largement dominé par la production agricole, l’œconomie est l’art de tirer parti de la nature ou, comme on le disait à l’époque, l’art d’être « ménager de la nature ». Notre connaissance des lois physiques ou, comme on dirait maintenant, des écosystèmes, est le moyen pour chaque peuple de tirer parti au mieux des ressources propres à chaque contexte et à chaque pays. Plus d’un siècle plus tôt, le Français Antoine de Montchrestien (1575-1621) avait écrit en 1615 un Traité de l’œconomie politique, défini comme « l’art de gérer et les hommes et les choses ». Il parle même de « mesnagerie publique » d’où va dériver aussi bien l’expression « économie ménagère » que le terme moderne de management. L’œconomie est alors l’art de penser les relations entre les choses, les relations entre les hommes.

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