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Le regard d’un sociologue sur le rural aujourd’hui

2014



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose un diagnostic des différentes réalités de l’espace rural en France et leurs conséquences en termes de stratégie de développement pour les territoires ruraux.




Comment la sociologie aborde les sociétés rurales ?

L’histoire des sciences sociales a longtemps conduit l’analyse de l’objet « rural » en dehors du champ de la sociologie. Cette dernière s’est presqu’exclusivement intéressée à la construction des sociétés modernes et donc à l’époque urbaine. Au XIXe siècle les propos de Karl MARX analysant la paysannerie française en la comparant à un « sac de pomme de terres » est sur ce point très éclairant. Pour lui, les sociétés paysannes sont localisées et différenciées les unes des autres comme autant de pommes de terres, le tout enfermé dans un grand sac qui est génériquement appelé la « paysannerie ». Les paysans sont donc à comprendre comme « hors classe ». On a ainsi opposé d’une part cette société « hors classe », faite de regroupements de paysans atomisés, en dehors de la lutte des classes et une société de classe qui fait l’objet d’études approfondies. Le sociologue Maurice HALBWACHS parlait d’une véritable civilisation paysanne totalement différente de la société urbaine. La différenciation fut alors tellement marquée qu’Henri MENDRAS qualifiera de « société paysanne » des communautés rurales regroupées autour des villages qui furent alors analysées par d’autres disciplines que la sociologie, à savoir l’anthropologie et l’ethnologie. On trouvera alors des analyses qui mettront l’accent sur le folklore, les mythes, les mentalités, les formes familiales, etc. La théorisation se base ainsi sur une société coupée de la modernité, une civilisation préindustrielle à mi-chemin entre les sociétés industrielles et les sociétés primitives et ce, à tel point que les paysans furent comparés aux « sauvages de l’intérieur ». Cette approche complètement centrée sur le paysan comme l’archétype du rural fut dominante pendant plus d’un demi-siècle allant jusqu’aux années 50. Par conséquent, les ruraux ont été assimilés de façon mécanique aux paysans. Cette approche a par ailleurs été souvent dénoncée par les historiens qui insistent au contraire sur le fait que les ruraux sont bien souvent des ouvriers, et ce dès le milieu du XIXème siècle avec l’apparition dans les campagnes d’une proto-industrie. Ces changements de perspectives introduites par les historiens sont prolongés par les sociologues.

Aujourd’hui, le marquage des sociétés rurales comme des sociétés à part, isolées et coupées de la modernité est très fortement remis en cause.

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Le regard d’un géographe sur le rural aujourd’hui

2014



Comment la sociologie aborde les sociétés rurales ?




Comment percevez-vous l’espace rural ?

En Europe l’espace rural n’est pas homogène, plusieurs réalités coexistent. On peut trouver d’abord des espaces à dominante agricole structurés par un modèle de développement dont les composantes demeurent essentiellement agraires (droit de propriété, rythmes sociaux, valeurs, etc.). Dans ces espaces, la fonctionnalité territoriale reste exclusivement agricole. La question du devenir des autres acteurs et des autres fonctions de l’espace (récréatives, etc.) est alors posée. Ainsi, on comprend que le devenir de ces territoires est très lié à celui de l’agriculture et des agriculteurs. D’autres types d’espace rural possèdent une dominante industrielle et agricole en raison de localisation de nombreuses activités manufacturières en milieu rural, ce qui structure les emplois (les ouvriers vivent majoritairement en milieu rural) ainsi qu’une partie de l’histoire de ces territoires. Par conséquent, il n’existe pas une seule ruralité en Europe. La réalité est beaucoup plus diversifiée que ce que nous pouvons en dire.

En France, il existe aussi plusieurs réalités rurales.

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Les piliers du devenir des territoires en Europe

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours de clôture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur souligne les trois piliers indissociables pour réfléchir le devenir des territoires européens : l’agriculture, le rural, la relation de l’homme au territoire.




Il y a trois piliers qui sont indissociables à la réflexion et sur lesquels je me permettrai de dire quelques mots : l’agriculture, le rural, et le territoire. Je ne veux pas les confondre. Ce serait rendre un mauvais service aux trois, mais je voudrais vous dire qu’ils sont indissociables et qu’il ne peut pas y avoir de développement rural sans agriculteurs.
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Préserver les lieux où peut se créer le lien social

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur distingue trois niveaux pour prendre en charge le développement des milieux ruraux : la commune comme lieu de vie, la communauté de communes comme lieu de coopération, le territoire comme espace de projet commun.




Depuis 40 ans, l’administration centrale essaie, par divers moyens, de réduire fortement le nombre de communes dans notre pays. 36 000 communes, pour elle, c’est un non sens, d’où cet acharnement, direct ou indirect, par la voie législative, administrative ou financière à vouloir imposer une autre voie. Le schéma national d’aménagement du territoire devant être remis sur le métier, il paraît utile de préciser quelques lignes de réflexion de fond. Ma réflexion est davantage orientée sur le milieu rural, où les orientations à venir auront le plus d’incidence. Il est nécessaire de distinguer trois niveaux de responsabilité qui interfèrent et s’inscrivent sur des territoires pertinents :

  • la communauté de vie : la commune

  • la communauté de gestion : la coopération intercommunale

  • la communauté de projet : le Pays.

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Pourquoi les jeunes désertent-ils ?

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur partage sa préoccupation vis-à-vis du phénomène de désertion des territoires ruraux par les jeunes. Si l’un des enjeux est de mieux accompagner leur insertion professionnelle, la situation nécessite aussi de mieux comprendre pourquoi les jeunes désertent.




Implantée en région Aquitaine, la Mission Locale du Pays Villeneuvois s’adresse aux jeunes de l’arrondissement de Villeneuve-sur-Lot situé au nord-est du département du Lot-et-Garonne. [Elle] a accompagné, au cours de l’année 1995, plus de 1500 jeunes. [Cet accompagnement] comprend un important travail de fond sur l’orientation et la construction d’un projet professionnel. La principale difficulté que nous affrontons est l’absence de motivation réelle des jeunes qui leur permettrait de se propulser vers la vie active, vers un projet de vie.
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La SICA et le développement local

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur souligne l’intérêt, l’originalité et la modernité de l’outil SICA pour accompagner l’aménagement et l’organisation des territoires ruraux. Contrairement aux outils classiques du développement agricole, la SICA est une structure ouverte à l’ensemble des acteurs ruraux d’où probablement de nouvelles opportunités à rechercher aujourd’hui dans l’appui aux dynamiques de « pays ».




La société d’intérêt collectif agricole a été introduite dans notre droit par la grande Loi du 5 août 1920 qui organisait la société coopérative agricole et la caisse de crédit agricole mutuel. Aux SICA revenait l’équipement rural tel l’électrification rurale, grand projet de l’époque. L’équipement étant un bien collectif territorial, les SICA étaient ouvertes à tous les habitants ruraux, sous réserve que les agriculteurs possèdent la majorité en voix aux assemblées générales.

L’origine de cette grande loi d’organisation rurale se trouve dans l’héroïsme des paysans qui ont supporté le poids principal de la Guerre des tranchées (1914-18). Le « ils ont des droits sur nous » était le signe de la reconnaissance de la Nation, mais il découlait aussi du sentiment que les valeurs rurales ayant permis de tels hommes devaient être sauvegardées en vue du bien commun à venir.

Le souci du législateur était donc de protéger un style de vie si fertile en qualités humaines, que le modèle urbain qui se généralisait pouvait détruire, non par hostilité, mais parce que les critères qu’il génère sont incompatibles avec la spécificité des milieux ruraux.

Par la suite, la modernisation des exploitations agricoles, en agrandissant les surfaces, a poussé à l’exode rural. A un point tel que l’on s’est enfin aperçu qu’agriculteurs et éleveurs, s’ils étaient essentiels à la ruralité, n’en formaient pas la totalité.

Il existe à leurs côtés d’autres catégories sociales qui sont aussi des paysans, c’est-à-dire ceux qui font le pays et participent aux réalités rurales. La raréfaction croissante des agriculteurs et des éleveurs leur redonne une importance relative. Mais il est bien tard. Les concepts urbains juridiques et administratifs ont mis toute leur emprise sur ces acteurs de la ruralité autres qu’agricoles et la cohérence du tissu rural, toutes activités confondues, en est altérée !

Et nos SICA, justement ouvertes à toutes les catégories d’activités rurales, que deviennent-elles dans cette évolution ? Elles ont été totalement éclipsées par la réussite économique de la coopération agricole, par le succès bancaire prodigieux du Crédit Agricole. L’action du crédit et de la coopération agricoles reste certes profitable aux milieux ruraux. Mais en incarnent-ils encore l’esprit selon les critères de la Loi du 5 août 1920 ?

Alors pourquoi ne pas donner à la SICA conçue dès l’origine pour l’équipement rural une vocation particulière pour l’équipement du « pays », tel qu’il est défini par la Loi récente sur l’aménagement du territoire ? En n’oubliant pas bien sûr, que dans la tradition mutualiste, l’organisation d’un tissu social, c’est aussi de l’équipement, puisqu’il s’agit de donner à un milieu de vie les moyens de s’exprimer.

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Une gestion en bien commun de leur milieu de vie par des hommes responsables, élément clef du retour à l’équilibre de notre société

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur précise les principes et objectifs de l’action de Sol et Civilisation, tournée vers un rééquilibrage de la société qui se fonde sur un comportement nouveau des acteurs. L’objectif est bien de promouvoir un Homme actif et responsable et pour cela d’explorer de nouvelles méthodes et de nouveaux outils pour que l’Homme puisse être pleinement acteur de son propre développement. Deux exigences liées ensemble : la recherche-action!




Un rééquilibrage de la société exige un comportement nouveau des acteurs

Dans la vie des individus et des sociétés, comme en physique, le déséquilibre est souvent facteur de mouvement et à ce titre, peut procurer des effets positifs. Cependant, lorsqu’il affecte la société de manière excessive, il engendre des conséquences négatives, souvent cumulatives, qu’il devient difficile de surmonter.

Beaucoup d’indices conduisent à penser que notre société ne parvient plus, par les modes de raisonnement et les méthodes en vigueur, à juguler une évolution inexorable vers un démantèlement qui, après avoir frappé la société dans son organisation, atteint les individus dans leur comportement social.

S’il est de bon ton d’incriminer le mode d’organisation dominant actuel, qualifié de libéralisme et son corollaire la mondialisation permise par le progrès des techniques de communication et de transport, il faut considérer que ces deux phénomènes ne sont que des facteurs d’accélération d’un processus entamé de longue date.

Sol et Civilisation a en effet déjà exprimé l’idée qu’une des origines de cette situation est à rechercher dans la position devenue dominante du système urbano-industriel quant à son influence sur les modes d’organisation et de gestion de notre société.

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Vers un projet agricole pour la ville nouvelle de Sénart

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur retrace à grands traits l’histoire de la ville nouvelle de Sénart et de la place progressive qu’y ont pris les agriculteurs et l’agriculture. C’est ainsi que l’auteur décrit une situation atypique qui mixe agriculture et ville et nécessite de plus en plus de penser le projet agricole comme un projet dans la ville, voire même comme une partie du projet de ville. A travers ce cheminement, l’auteur éclaire les voies de relations nouvelles entre les agriculteurs et les habitants d’un territoire très urbanisé.




A travers mon témoignage, je souhaite avant tout vous faire partager l’histoire singulière de la plaine de Sénart et surtout le ressenti de tous les hommes qui l’habitent. Comment ils ont ressenti le choc de l’urbanisation ? Qu’est-ce que cela a impliqué dans leur façon de vivre ? Et puis comment, aujourd’hui, nous tentons ensemble une reconstruction ?

Une terre généreuse

Sénart, située à 30 kilomètres au Sud-est de Paris, étalée sur 2 départements – l’Essonne et la Seine et Marne – constitue un périmètre de 12000 hectares. Ses sols, d’une qualité agricole exceptionnelle – plus d’un mètre de limon sur les calcaires de Brie – sont assis sur l’énorme nappe de Champigny qui abreuve Paris et la région parisienne. Toujours les hommes ont cultivé cette terre briarde, et il faut dire que tout y pousse dans les meilleures conditions. La forêt de Sénart, qui fait partie du territoire, a constitué pendant longtemps une réserve de chasse du roi. C’était une forêt très giboyeuse, le roi s’y rendait par la Seine puis y accédait à travers une allée royale qui traverse champs et forêt. Il faut ajouter aussi que l’agriculture qui a été pratiquée sur ces territoires a toujours nourri Paris en farine, en blé, en lait, en viande, en foin, et cela pour la simple et bonne raison que ce territoire était situé à une journée de charrette à cheval de Paris, pour l’aller et le retour.

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Les transformations des campagnes françaises au début du XXIe siècle

2005



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose en trois temps de reconsidérer les campagnes et d’éclairer leurs transformations. Peut-on encore parler de ruralité ou ne faut-il pas plutôt considérer les ruralités d’aujourd’hui pour décrire les dynamiques des espaces ruraux? L’auteur décrypte ensuite les 7 ruptures qui conduisent selon lui à la recomposition leurs recompositions autour de trois dimensions : agricole, résidentielle et naturelle. Pour assurer un développement local de ces territoires ruraux, il s’agit dès lors de prendre en charge cette recomposition à travers quatre défis.




A la fin du XXe siècle, le monde rural français comptait un peu plus de 13 millions d’habitants, c’est à peu près le même que celui de la France de 1960. Cependant, en 1962, le chiffre de 13 millions d’habitants représentait 30 % de la population française alors qu’aujourd’hui il n’en représente plus que 23 %, la France ayant gagné 10 millions d’habitants au cours de cette période.

Ruralité et Ruralités

13 millions d’habitants, c’est l’aboutissement du grand mouvement séculaire d’exode rural qui naît autour de la décennie 1860-1870 ; à un moment où 80 % de la population française vivait en milieu rural. Derrière ce chiffre se cachent quatre dynamiques démographiques qui correspondent à quatre espaces ruraux bien distincts.

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La gestion des ressources humaines en milieu rural : un défi territorial

2006



Dans cet article, le groupe de Toulouse souligne l’originalité de la gestion des ressources humaines en milieu rural. Pour la prendre en compte, il faut par conséquent développer des outils et des dispositifs spécifiques, appréhender cette problématique de façon transversale, d’où l’intérêt et l’opportunité de faire émerger dans les territoires une organisation tripartite : la triade d’acteurs.




Le territoire n’est pas qu’un espace neutre pour l’entreprise. Il peut même à l’inverse, surtout en milieu rural, générer des plus-values essentielles : ressources matérielles et humaines, atouts identitaires, solidarité entre acteurs.

Dans le champ de la gestion des ressources humaines, volet souvent stratégique pour les petites entreprises rurales, nous allons voir combien la dimension territoriale est devenue centrale. Pourtant, il n’en reste pas moins que conduire et monter des projets sur une base territoriale n’est pas chose aisée.

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