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Place de la ruralité et de l’agriculture dans la société française

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours d’ouverture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur propose un diagnostic des lignes de tension qui marquent la société française : l’érudit versus le citoyen, les responsabilités individuelles et collectives, l’homme consommateur et l’homme acteur… Il invite à trouver de nouvelles relations en phase avec la recherche de sens de bien vivre qui caractérise une société de plus en plus immatérielle.




Quelle est la place d’une ruralité sans paysans, d’une agriculture sans agriculteurs ? Quelles sont les nouvelles solidarités ?

Nous allons devoir faire face à des bouleversements complets de la société : c’est évidemment dans l’immédiat la crise financière, mais c’est aussi le basculement démographique qui va complètement changer le rapport entre personnes âgées et personnes jeunes, c’est aussi le défi alimentaire sur lequel nous reviendrons, les bouleversements de caractères idéologiques, car plus l’avenir est incertain, plus les tentations sont fortes de se réfugier dans des intégrismes protecteurs et dans des oppositions de pensées.

Paradoxalement, au moment où nous n’avons jamais eu accès à autant de connaissances, il n’y a jamais eu autant d’incertitudes par rapport à l’avenir et autant de résistances par rapport au progrès. Les réflexes des peuples n’étant pas toujours salutaires, nous pourrions constater des replis identitaires, des replis idéologiques, des replis territoriaux complètement suicidaires, soutenus par des votes démocratiques. Il est vrai que ce sont des réflexes de survie, mais la notion de survie peut quelquefois faire en sorte que celui qui est en train de se noyer frappe celui qui est en train de le sauver.

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L’Etat, le marché, la communauté : comment améliorer la gestion de l’eau ?

2010



L’article fait le point sur quelques enseignements du projet de thèse de Didier CHRISTIN. A la lumière de ses travaux, l’auteur défriche quelques points structurants du paradigme de la gestion de l’eau et nous invite à repenser les binômes « Etat-marché », « liberté-contrainte » si l’on souhaite effectivement améliorer la qualité globale de l’eau.




Ces dernières décennies, deux grandes approches ont très largement dominées les politiques de l’eau : le marché et l’Etat. Pour les tenants de la première approche, « le marché », la privatisation des ressources en eau devait permettre une gestion durable de celles-ci, du fait des vertus attribuées au « marché », de la régulation attendue de celui-ci par adéquation entre les offres et les demandes en eau. Pour les tenants de la seconde approche, « l’Etat », l’appropriation par la puissance publique des ressources en eau allait assurer – par la définition et la mise en place de normes, de règles, de lois, de techniques aussi, s’appliquant à tous et en tout lieu – une gestion durable de l’eau.

Quelle place pour la « société » dans les politiques issues de ces deux grandes approches ?

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La subsidiarité est une question d’actualité

2001



Dans cet article, l’auteur explique en quoi la notion de subsidiarité lui paraît stratégique pour appréhender les évolutions mondiales, pour poursuivre la construction de l’Europe tout comme pour gérer les crises de la société française.




La mondialisation en cours se manifeste dans nos sociétés par une tension entre le global et le local. Alors que les responsables « pensent global » et expliquent le global, les citoyens, ceux qui veulent agir dans la société, « pensent local ». Cette distance est très certainement une des raisons du malaise de la démocratie, tout au moins dans les pays d’Europe occidentale : il faut rétablir un dialogue entre les uns et les autres.
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Typologie des problèmes dans les sociétés : problèmes techniques et problèmes adaptatifs

2000






Ronald HEIFETZ, professeur à l’Ecole d’administration J.F.Kennedy (Université de Harvard), distingue deux types fondamentaux de problèmes rencontrés par les sociétés : les problèmes techniques et les problèmes d’adaptation.

1. Les problèmes techniques, tels que les catastrophes naturelles, ont déjà été résolus dans le passé. Pour résoudre ce type de problèmes, une société a besoin d’une approche autoritaire et directive, où chacun connaît la procédure à suivre, même dans le cas de situations particulièrement compliquées.

2. Les problèmes « adaptatifs » ou « d’adaptation » sont ceux que la société n’a jamais encore résolu. Quand il s’agit de résoudre ce type de problèmes, une approche directive ne fonctionne pas. Leur résolution exige au contraire la collaboration de tous les acteurs sociaux, qui doivent inventer ensemble la solution. Elle fait souvent intervenir des champs d’action généralement cloisonnés. On peut citer comme exemples les questions d’environnement, de santé, etc.

Selon Ronald HEIFETZ, le management nécessaire pour résoudre les problèmes de type technique est fondamentalement différent de celui qui convient aux problèmes adaptatifs. Or, même lorsque nous attendons de nos dirigeants qu’ils résolvent un problème adaptatif, ils prennent des mesures d’ordre technique : décisions unilatérales, directives, règlements…

Des leaders adaptatifs devraient au contraire savoir faciliter le dialogue social et ainsi permettre à la société d’apporter sa réponse.

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Pour une nouvelle approche du développement, centrée sur l’homme

2000



Dans son discours, l’intervenant tire les enseignements de son intervention auprès de la République du Kirghizitan, menée la fin des années 90 pour élaborer un programme de développement. Quelques points clefs à retenir: la nécessité de 1) considérer les pays non pas comme des marchés émergents mais comme des sociétés émergentes; 2) faire naitre la subsidiarité avant de définir le projet; 3) appréhender le développement comme un problème complexe d’adaptation et non pas comme un problème technique.




Nous nous préparons à connaître au cours des prochaines décennies un véritable bouleversement de la démographie mondiale : en 2010, 1 milliard d’hommes sur Terre auront moins de 30 ans ; parmi eux, 90% vivront dans des pays où, aujourd’hui déjà, on ne trouve pas de travail. A travers les médias, ils sauront en revanche comment vivent leurs cousins des pays développés. Dans ce contexte, à moins de réagir rapidement, il me paraît totalement illusoire de penser que nous pourrons conserver longtemps notre mode de vie actuel, sans crises sociales ou politiques majeures.

Nous devons dépasser notre conception des pays en développement comme des marchés émergents : ce sont des sociétés émergentes. Définissons donc une nouvelle forme d’assistance, active, qui contribue à mettre en place des institutions – et des leaders – capables de travailler ensemble pour répondre aux problèmes qu’affrontent leurs pays. Des problèmes, comme le chômage, dont la résolution appelle la participation d’acteurs nombreux, privés, publics et associatifs.

La tâche n’est pas aisée ; pourtant, continuer de fournir une aide purement technique sans la renforcer ne mène probablement qu’à l’échec. Quels progrès seraient réalisés, si 2% des fonds d’assistance à ces pays servaient à former leurs leaders à la conduite du changement…

En juin 1999, j’ai signé un contrat avec la Banque Asiatique de Développement (BAD). Il s’agissait, avec une équipe de consultants internationaux, de rédiger un cahier des charges portant sur l’emploi par le Kirghizistan d’un prêt de 24 millions de dollars.

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La subsidiarité, base de la démocratie

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur s’inquiète du manque de subsidiarité dans le développement de notre société alors qu’à ses yeux, ce principe est essentiel pour un développement local réussi, incontournable pour poursuivre la construction européenne, et indispensable pour faire émerger un développement mondial cohérent et équilibre…




Nos démocraties représentatives traversent une mauvaise passe. Leur pouvoir de décision est érodé par la mondialisation de la finance et de l’économie. L’idéologie néolibérale dominante les considère comme des systèmes lourds et dépassés, incapables de s’adapter aux nécessités de l’instant et aux virtualités du futur. […]

A cela s’ajoute, dans notre pays, une trop vieille tradition centralisatrice qui imprègne non seulement les rouages de l’Etat mais aussi ceux de maintes organisations privées et même d’entreprises. Elle conduit à prendre des décisions « d’en haut », en négligeant les savoir-faire, le dynamisme, la capacité d’entreprendre et d’exercer des responsabilités de ceux « d’en bas ».

Comment, dès lors, s’étonner que bon nombre de nos concitoyens se désintéressent du vivre ensemble, de la démocratie et jouent la carte du tout individuel, du repli sur soi ? […]

On peut cependant, percevoir des signes montrant que les femmes et les hommes d’aujourd’hui ne se désintéressent pas tous de ce qui se passe dans nos sociétés. Ainsi l’intervention des organisations non gouvernementales au sommet de l’OMC à Seattle, et cela malgré leurs dissonances. Ou encore le refus massif des consommateurs européens de se voir imposer par des firmes multinationales, sans informations sûres et accessibles, des produits alimentaires contenant des organismes génétiquement modifiés.

Cependant, ces fronts du refus, même puissants et organisés, ne peuvent, à eux seuls, suffire à inverser le fonctionnement de nos sociétés. Il faut pour cela réhabiliter et rénover le politique en s’appuyant sur le principe remis à l’ordre du jour par Jacques Delors lorsqu’il était président de la Commission européenne, celui de la subsidiarité.

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L’évolution du domaine qualité dans les entreprises

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur présente les trois étapes principales de l’évolution de la gestion de la qualité dans les entreprises depuis la seconde guerre mondiale. Il insiste sur les nouvelles approches et notions pour développer la qualité dans les entreprises aujourd’hui et voit une grande relation entre ce défi pour le milieu humain qu’est l’entreprise et les enjeux auxquels un territoire est confronté.




L’histoire du mouvement qualité dans le monde est décomposée en trois grandes étapes, liées à des problèmes de survie.

La qualité s’est développée dans le monde industriel pendant la deuxième guerre mondiale. La question qui s’est posée alors était très simple : comment avoir, aux Etats-Unis, une industrie de l’armement qui puisse fabriquer des porte-avions qui ne coulent pas, des chars qui fonctionnent et permettre ainsi à l’humanité libre d’être sauvegardée ?

C’est à cette époque que se sont développés tous les grands principes de la qualité à travers des systèmes permettant d’assurer la conformité des produits. La plupart de ces règles ont toujours cours.

A partir des années 70 …

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Agriculture, société, territoires : des liens porteurs de richesses

2005



Dans cette synthèse de colloque, l’auteur propose de considérer le territoire comme un point de rencontre entre agriculture et société. Parce qu’il est un socle de relations, un espace de ressources et un lieu stratégique pour envisager le développement économique. Ceci d’autant plus que les termes d’un nouveau pacte entre agriculture et société se font jour.




Par ce colloque, nous souhaitions illustrer les relations « agriculture-société » en présentant trois cas territoriaux différents, et nous interroger alors sur la place du territoire dans cette relation. Avec les exemples du vignoble de Marcillac, de la coopérative SICASELI et du territoire sénartais, quelques lignes de force sont apparues.

Le territoire reste le socle indispensable pour activer ou réactiver les relations entre les agriculteurs et les autres acteurs de la société.

Il n’y a certes pas et il ne peut y avoir de schéma unique. Chaque territoire, en fonction de sa géographie, de son histoire, de ses contextes socio-économiques, doit définir sa propre stratégie et engager des démarches adaptées. Toutefois, c’est bien dans la proximité que se nouent les relations et les coopérations nécessaires entre tous les acteurs : acteurs économiques, acteurs politiques et acteurs associatifs. Le territoire est alors le support de ces relations et un capital essentiel à valoriser pour le développement.

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L’association foncière pastorale : un outil de travail

1999






L’association foncière pastorale : un outil de travail

L’association foncière pastorale (AFP) réunit les propriétaires fonciers afin de gérer collectivement un périmètre à l’abandon ou en voie d’abandon. Cinq principaux objectifs sont visés :

  • Répondre aux objectifs de la politique paysagère intercommunale : le paysage est le fruit de la relation entre un milieu naturel et une société ;

  • Améliorer l’aspect paysager de la vallée, en rendant plus agréable le cadre de vie quotidien de ses habitants et plus attractive cette zone de montagne pour les touristes ;

  • Résorber progressivement les grands espaces en friche aux portes des villages ;

  • Développer et soutenir l’agriculture de montagne de la vallée par la mise en valeur de prés de fauche et de pâturages ;

  • Sauvegarder la vie économique et sociale des villages.

Les propriétaires du périmètre concerné s’associent tout en restant individuellement propriétaires de leurs biens fonciers. Il n’est en aucun cas question d’expropriation. La création de l’AFP permet à un propriétaire de vendre ou d’acheter des terrains du périmètre. L’AFP gère, entretient ou fait entretenir l’ensemble du périmètre, y effectue les travaux nécessaires à la remise en état.

Toutes les décisions sont prises en Assemblée générale, par l’ensemble des propriétaires ; la Direction départementale de l’agriculture et des forêts (DDAF) et le District Haute-Bruche aident à l’aboutissement du projet, dans la mesure où la majorité des propriétaires concernés y est favorable. L’association est largement soutenue financièrement par les divers partenaires institutionnels, une part restant à sa charge.

L’AFP est donc essentiellement un outil de travail pour faire en sorte qu’un espace naturel soit entretenu au lieu de perdre toute valeur agronomique, patrimoniale, paysagère…

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L’audit patrimonial : un outil nouveau au service de l’action en commun

1996





Un audit patrimonial se déroule en général en trois phases.

La première est qualifiée de « macro-systémique ». L’auditeur rencontre les acteurs qui ont une action ou une vision globale de la question :: Conseil Général, Conseil Régional, administrations, chambres consulaires, associations…

Ensuite, se déroule la phase « micro-systémique » au cours de laquelle sont écoutés les acteurs de terrain (élus locaux, socio-professionnels…) suivant les mêmes principes et la même grille d’analyse.

Les entretiens sont menés selon des règles strictes de déontologie : le commanditaire de l’audit est clairement identifié ; il est bien clair que la personne auditionnée accepte librement de participer à l’audit et que ce qu’elle dira n’engage ni l’auditeur, ni le commanditaire à agir ; la confidentialité absolue de ses propos lui est garantie ; enfin, la diffusion du rapport d’audit est gérée par le commanditaire.

Quatre registres à la grille d’analyse :

  • Identification des problèmes qui se posent, des entités naturelles et humaines concernées.

  • Diagnostic des actions engagées pour répondre à ces problèmes.

  • Prospective : échelle géographique et échelle de temps auxquelles les problèmes vont se jouer, se résoudre. Description de trois scénarios que la personne qualifie : un positif, un tendanciel, un négatif.

  • Enfin, l’auditeur recueille toutes les propositions d’actions des acteurs en leur demandant quel est le système d’action dans lequel ils sont prêts à s’engager et qu’ils veulent construire. Cette partie différencie l’audit d’une étude classique. L’audit patrimonial vise en effet à mobiliser les acteurs en sollicitant leur expertise.

Chacune de ces deux phases peut être conclue, à la demande du commanditaire, par une restitution publique auprès de toutes les personnes rencontrées par l’auditeur.

Enfin, vient la phase d’intégration « micro-macro systémique » au cours de laquelle l’auditeur intègre ce qu’il a entendu lors des phases « macro » et « micro », dans le but de proposer une nouvelle organisation de l’action aux acteurs.

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