Tribune Ruralité

2021

Relance économique, pouvoir d’achat, lien social et urgence climatique sont autant de sujets de préoccupation des Français qui animent la campagne de l’élection présidentielle de 2022. A la manière d’un électrochoc, la crise sanitaire COVID exacerbe les inquiétudes mais aussi révèle des potentiels et accélère les prises de conscience. Parmi celles-ci, émerge la nécessaire reconquête de la souveraineté française, qui s’exprime notamment parla relocalisation de la production et la relance de la dynamique économique et entrepreneuriale des territoires.

Manifeste pour des ruralités vivantes

2021

Ce manifeste pour des ruralités vivantes avance différentes propositions d’évolution. Organisations professionnelles, associations, administrations, élus nationaux et locaux et citoyens doivent s’en saisir.

Ce manifeste est proposé par la FNSEA – Fédération Nationale des Syndicats d’Exploitants Agricoles avec 36 cosignataires.

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Le regard d’un sociologue sur le rural aujourd’hui

2014



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose un diagnostic des différentes réalités de l’espace rural en France et leurs conséquences en termes de stratégie de développement pour les territoires ruraux.




Comment la sociologie aborde les sociétés rurales ?

L’histoire des sciences sociales a longtemps conduit l’analyse de l’objet « rural » en dehors du champ de la sociologie. Cette dernière s’est presqu’exclusivement intéressée à la construction des sociétés modernes et donc à l’époque urbaine. Au XIXe siècle les propos de Karl MARX analysant la paysannerie française en la comparant à un « sac de pomme de terres » est sur ce point très éclairant. Pour lui, les sociétés paysannes sont localisées et différenciées les unes des autres comme autant de pommes de terres, le tout enfermé dans un grand sac qui est génériquement appelé la « paysannerie ». Les paysans sont donc à comprendre comme « hors classe ». On a ainsi opposé d’une part cette société « hors classe », faite de regroupements de paysans atomisés, en dehors de la lutte des classes et une société de classe qui fait l’objet d’études approfondies. Le sociologue Maurice HALBWACHS parlait d’une véritable civilisation paysanne totalement différente de la société urbaine. La différenciation fut alors tellement marquée qu’Henri MENDRAS qualifiera de « société paysanne » des communautés rurales regroupées autour des villages qui furent alors analysées par d’autres disciplines que la sociologie, à savoir l’anthropologie et l’ethnologie. On trouvera alors des analyses qui mettront l’accent sur le folklore, les mythes, les mentalités, les formes familiales, etc. La théorisation se base ainsi sur une société coupée de la modernité, une civilisation préindustrielle à mi-chemin entre les sociétés industrielles et les sociétés primitives et ce, à tel point que les paysans furent comparés aux « sauvages de l’intérieur ». Cette approche complètement centrée sur le paysan comme l’archétype du rural fut dominante pendant plus d’un demi-siècle allant jusqu’aux années 50. Par conséquent, les ruraux ont été assimilés de façon mécanique aux paysans. Cette approche a par ailleurs été souvent dénoncée par les historiens qui insistent au contraire sur le fait que les ruraux sont bien souvent des ouvriers, et ce dès le milieu du XIXème siècle avec l’apparition dans les campagnes d’une proto-industrie. Ces changements de perspectives introduites par les historiens sont prolongés par les sociologues.

Aujourd’hui, le marquage des sociétés rurales comme des sociétés à part, isolées et coupées de la modernité est très fortement remis en cause.

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Le regard d’un géographe sur le rural aujourd’hui

2014



Comment la sociologie aborde les sociétés rurales ?




Comment percevez-vous l’espace rural ?

En Europe l’espace rural n’est pas homogène, plusieurs réalités coexistent. On peut trouver d’abord des espaces à dominante agricole structurés par un modèle de développement dont les composantes demeurent essentiellement agraires (droit de propriété, rythmes sociaux, valeurs, etc.). Dans ces espaces, la fonctionnalité territoriale reste exclusivement agricole. La question du devenir des autres acteurs et des autres fonctions de l’espace (récréatives, etc.) est alors posée. Ainsi, on comprend que le devenir de ces territoires est très lié à celui de l’agriculture et des agriculteurs. D’autres types d’espace rural possèdent une dominante industrielle et agricole en raison de localisation de nombreuses activités manufacturières en milieu rural, ce qui structure les emplois (les ouvriers vivent majoritairement en milieu rural) ainsi qu’une partie de l’histoire de ces territoires. Par conséquent, il n’existe pas une seule ruralité en Europe. La réalité est beaucoup plus diversifiée que ce que nous pouvons en dire.

En France, il existe aussi plusieurs réalités rurales.

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Les piliers du devenir des territoires en Europe

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours de clôture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur souligne les trois piliers indissociables pour réfléchir le devenir des territoires européens : l’agriculture, le rural, la relation de l’homme au territoire.




Il y a trois piliers qui sont indissociables à la réflexion et sur lesquels je me permettrai de dire quelques mots : l’agriculture, le rural, et le territoire. Je ne veux pas les confondre. Ce serait rendre un mauvais service aux trois, mais je voudrais vous dire qu’ils sont indissociables et qu’il ne peut pas y avoir de développement rural sans agriculteurs.
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Place de la ruralité et de l’agriculture dans la société française

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours d’ouverture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur propose un diagnostic des lignes de tension qui marquent la société française : l’érudit versus le citoyen, les responsabilités individuelles et collectives, l’homme consommateur et l’homme acteur… Il invite à trouver de nouvelles relations en phase avec la recherche de sens de bien vivre qui caractérise une société de plus en plus immatérielle.




Quelle est la place d’une ruralité sans paysans, d’une agriculture sans agriculteurs ? Quelles sont les nouvelles solidarités ?

Nous allons devoir faire face à des bouleversements complets de la société : c’est évidemment dans l’immédiat la crise financière, mais c’est aussi le basculement démographique qui va complètement changer le rapport entre personnes âgées et personnes jeunes, c’est aussi le défi alimentaire sur lequel nous reviendrons, les bouleversements de caractères idéologiques, car plus l’avenir est incertain, plus les tentations sont fortes de se réfugier dans des intégrismes protecteurs et dans des oppositions de pensées.

Paradoxalement, au moment où nous n’avons jamais eu accès à autant de connaissances, il n’y a jamais eu autant d’incertitudes par rapport à l’avenir et autant de résistances par rapport au progrès. Les réflexes des peuples n’étant pas toujours salutaires, nous pourrions constater des replis identitaires, des replis idéologiques, des replis territoriaux complètement suicidaires, soutenus par des votes démocratiques. Il est vrai que ce sont des réflexes de survie, mais la notion de survie peut quelquefois faire en sorte que celui qui est en train de se noyer frappe celui qui est en train de le sauver.

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L’Etat, le marché, la communauté : comment améliorer la gestion de l’eau ?

2010



L’article fait le point sur quelques enseignements du projet de thèse de Didier CHRISTIN. A la lumière de ses travaux, l’auteur défriche quelques points structurants du paradigme de la gestion de l’eau et nous invite à repenser les binômes « Etat-marché », « liberté-contrainte » si l’on souhaite effectivement améliorer la qualité globale de l’eau.




Ces dernières décennies, deux grandes approches ont très largement dominées les politiques de l’eau : le marché et l’Etat. Pour les tenants de la première approche, « le marché », la privatisation des ressources en eau devait permettre une gestion durable de celles-ci, du fait des vertus attribuées au « marché », de la régulation attendue de celui-ci par adéquation entre les offres et les demandes en eau. Pour les tenants de la seconde approche, « l’Etat », l’appropriation par la puissance publique des ressources en eau allait assurer – par la définition et la mise en place de normes, de règles, de lois, de techniques aussi, s’appliquant à tous et en tout lieu – une gestion durable de l’eau.

Quelle place pour la « société » dans les politiques issues de ces deux grandes approches ?

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L’énergie renouvelable au coeur du développement d’un territoire rural, l’exemple du Mené

2010



Cet article fait le point sur les initiatives et les projets portés par les acteurs du territoire du Mené qu’ont présenté Dominique ROCABOY et Jacky AIGNEL lors des Assises 2007 de Sol et Civilisation. Il dégage les différentes innovations dont les acteurs ont fait preuve pour mener à bien ces projets. Ces innovations sont au coeur du projet de territoire et sont révélatrices d’un territoire vivant et ouvert.




Situé au centre du triangle formé par les axes Rennes à Brest, Saint Brieuc à Vannes et Rennes à Quimper, le territoire du Mené a une superficie de 163,2 km² soit à titre de comparaison 50% plus étendue que la ville de Paris pour une population de 6309 habitants. Le Mené est en effet un territoire rural caractérisé par le poids prépondérant de l’activité agricole et un habitat très dispersé. Dans les années 60, les transformations agricoles et le vieillissement de la population ont entraîné le territoire dans un cercle vicieux ; déprise de l’activité agricole, pertes de population et d’actifs, moindre attractivité.

Face à cette situation, les élus et citoyens du territoire ont cherché à inverser la tendance et tenté de promouvoir leur territoire à travers des projets dont la portée et le cadre transcendent les filières et les compétences établies. Il s’agissait de faire émerger les projets dont peuvent s’emparer l’ensemble des acteurs du territoire pour construire un avenir commun. Ces projets se sont lentement montés au fil des 40 dernières années notamment dans le secteur culturel et économique. Ce temps a aussi permis aux habitants de s’emparer des problématiques du territoire et de s’y investir. Le territoire est ainsi passé par de nombreuses étapes pour maintenant s’inscrire dans une logique de développement durable et d’équilibre énergétique.

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La subsidiarité est une question d’actualité

2001



Dans cet article, l’auteur explique en quoi la notion de subsidiarité lui paraît stratégique pour appréhender les évolutions mondiales, pour poursuivre la construction de l’Europe tout comme pour gérer les crises de la société française.




La mondialisation en cours se manifeste dans nos sociétés par une tension entre le global et le local. Alors que les responsables « pensent global » et expliquent le global, les citoyens, ceux qui veulent agir dans la société, « pensent local ». Cette distance est très certainement une des raisons du malaise de la démocratie, tout au moins dans les pays d’Europe occidentale : il faut rétablir un dialogue entre les uns et les autres.
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Préserver les lieux où peut se créer le lien social

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur distingue trois niveaux pour prendre en charge le développement des milieux ruraux : la commune comme lieu de vie, la communauté de communes comme lieu de coopération, le territoire comme espace de projet commun.




Depuis 40 ans, l’administration centrale essaie, par divers moyens, de réduire fortement le nombre de communes dans notre pays. 36 000 communes, pour elle, c’est un non sens, d’où cet acharnement, direct ou indirect, par la voie législative, administrative ou financière à vouloir imposer une autre voie. Le schéma national d’aménagement du territoire devant être remis sur le métier, il paraît utile de préciser quelques lignes de réflexion de fond. Ma réflexion est davantage orientée sur le milieu rural, où les orientations à venir auront le plus d’incidence. Il est nécessaire de distinguer trois niveaux de responsabilité qui interfèrent et s’inscrivent sur des territoires pertinents :

  • la communauté de vie : la commune

  • la communauté de gestion : la coopération intercommunale

  • la communauté de projet : le Pays.

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