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La situation des territoires ruraux en Pologne

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur détaille l’organisation et le fonctionnement des espaces ruraux polonais, et explore les principaux enjeux en termes de développement agricole et d’organisation territoriale. Penser le devenir de ces territoires ruraux et maintenir des territoires vivants, c’est avant tout se donner les moyens d’une politique européenne de la ruralité, et non seulement de l’agriculture…




L’espace rural polonais couvre 93% du territoire et représente 38% de la population. Il s’organise autour d’un bon maillage territorial avec 16 régions, 315 districts, 2489 communes et environ 40 000 villages. Pour des raisons largement historiques, de grands écarts existent entre les régions, notamment entre l’Ouest et l’Est de la Pologne. Les régions longeant la frontière russe sont beaucoup plus défavorisées que les régions proches de l’Allemagne. Globalement les infrastructures techniques, les organismes sociaux, l’action des services publics, les possibilités de formation sont moindres qu’en ville même s’il faut souligner qu’un grand progrès a été fait ces dernières années, notamment au niveau des infrastructures.

Il n’existe pas, en principe, de territoire fort dépeuplé. En revanche, les situations sociales sont contrastées avec notamment un taux de chômage très élevé dans les régions où les fermes d’état ont dominé dans le passé (35% à 40%).

L’agriculture joue toujours un rôle primordial, bien qu’elle ne représente que 2.9% du PIB. Sa modernisation se réalise très lentement. Au sud les très petites exploitations dominent avec une surface moyenne de 3 hectares. Ailleurs, la surface moyenne s’élève à 18 hectares, la moyenne nationale étant de 9 hectares. Seul 13% des exploitations, couvrant 42% de la SAU, produisent 73% de la production commerciale. Plus de la moitié des exploitations n’a pas de contact avec le marché. Elles ne produisent que pour leurs propres besoins, et ne seront évidemment pas viables dans l’avenir. On estime qu’en Pologne, seulement 500 à 700 milliers d’exploitations pourront être concurrentielles dans l’Europe de demain.

Le taux de chômage en Pologne est actuellement compris entre 17 et 18%. Il est encore plus élevé dans les campagnes. Quand on ajoute le chômage caché, on peut dire que 1 à 2 millions de personnes devraient quitter à l’avenir le secteur agricole. Le rendement du travail est très faible : sur 100 hectares de terre plus de 20 personnes travaillent en Pologne, contre 5 personnes dans l’Europe des 15. Le chômage représente actuellement le plus grand problème des espaces ruraux. Il est la conséquence de longues années de transformations assez brutales dans toute économie, de l’absence d’une bonne politique de développement dans les zones rurales. Le principal défi des zones rurales est donc de créer des emplois en dehors de l’agriculture.

Le manque d’infrastructure, le faible engagement des pouvoirs publics, la faiblesse des relais financiers constituent aujourd’hui les principaux handicaps pour le développement des campagnes. Elles souffrent d’une centralisation excessive des moyens financiers et des décisions. Les démarches gouvernementales favorisent surtout les niveaux nationaux et très peu les niveaux locaux. Les compétences et les possibilités financières des régions sont symboliques. Les communes sont assez endettées et sans moyen pour cofinancer les projets communautaires. Les initiatives locales des organisations rurales risquent fort d’être négligées. Les modes de gestion participative sont insuffisants. Il y a aussi un déficit de stratégies claires en faveur des zones rurales. Il n’en reste pas moins que ces territoires sont riches de potentiels.

Le mode de vie urbain n’est plus un modèle dominant pour la population. La société partage le sentiment qu’en dehors de la production alimentaire, les zones rurales jouent également d’autres rôles très importants pour l’ensemble de la Pologne : un riche patrimoine culturel, un renouveau d’identité locale. L’identité régionale, l’identité du pays, renaissent très nettement. Il ne faut pas oublier qu’après la deuxième guerre mondiale, sous le système communiste, la continuité de la formation du milieu culturel rural a été interrompue pendant 50 ans. L’expression de la société civile n’existait pas. De plus, tous les peuples polonais s’étaient déplacés de plusieurs centaines de kilomètres de l’Est vers l’Ouest. Aujourd’hui, les habitants se réapproprient de plus en plus leur petit pays.

La production agricole se rationalise de plus en plus. La productivité augmente, la production répond de mieux en mieux aux besoins du marché et sa qualité s’améliore. On peut observer cela avant tout dans la production laitière.

L’esprit entrepreneurial est assez fort et il y a un grand potentiel d’initiatives. Ces dernières années, de nombreuses organisations non gouvernementales liées au développement local ont été créées. Ces organisations présentes dans les zones rurales ont monté le « forum d’activation » des espaces ruraux. Les premiers objectifs de ce forum sont la construction du dialogue civil, l’animation des collectivités locales, la construction de partenariats, la création de politiques de développement durable, la conduite de programmes de type Leader. La fondation que je représente joue le rôle de secrétariat informel de cette initiative.

Le développement des territoires ruraux polonais est dans la dépendance d’une bonne conjoncture économique, en Pologne et en Europe. Il exige également la redéfinition du statut professionnel des agriculteurs en reconnaissant leurs nouvelles missions: aménagement du territoire, sauvegarde de l’environnement, valorisation du patrimoine tant culturel que naturel. Enfin, il devra s’appuyer sur des programmes de développement innovants, participatifs, avec notamment une approche territoriale ascendante, décentralisée et intégrée.

Par ailleurs, la politique rurale européenne ne devra pas être seulement un supplément à la politique agricole. Il ne s’agit pas de minimiser le rôle de l’agriculture, mais de cesser de voir le développement rural uniquement à travers l’agriculture. Cette politique pourrait être réalisée dans le cadre d’une politique agricole rurale commune, mais elle devrait peut-être constituer une composante à part et être financée à travers une source budgétaire spéciale. Il serait peut-être utile de proposer de nouveaux instruments qui soient adaptés aux besoins et aux attentes du milieu rural. De plus, il faudrait renforcer la décentralisation en s’appuyant sur le principe de subsidiarité et en favorisant les démarches participatives, puis simplifier les procédures administratives.

Sauvegarder la culture et les traditions, vivre dans des conditions comparables à celles des agriculteurs français, trouver une place respectable dans la société, voilà le véritable but du monde rural polonais. Je me souviens du titre des deuxièmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation : « Terre des hommes, terre vivante », c’est cela l’avenir des campagnes polonaises. Allons-nous réussir ? Je reste optimiste car, malgré toutes les difficultés, je crois que l’intégration européenne est pour le monde rural polonais une chance historique. Et je reste optimiste en plus car on trouve aujourd’hui en Pologne plus de visages souriants dans la rue qu’il y a quelques années.

Relevé de l’exposé oral revu par l’auteur

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Place de l’agriculture, entre nature et culture

2011



Dans cet article, l’auteur analyse le glissement progressif des gestionnaires des espaces protégés d’une conception de la préservation de la nature à une vision nouvelle, « la co-gestion de la biodiversité », pour en détailler ensuite les conséquences pour les milieux et les relations entre les hommes. Ce changement sémantique suffira-t-il néanmoins à rétablir la confiance entre « gens du lieu » et « protecteurs » ?




La protection de la nature a été – et est encore – une source de conflits opposant d’un côté, ceux qui entendent préserver des espèces, des milieux et des paysages, et de l’autre, ceux qui mettent l’espace rural en valeur. Opposition également entre les « gens du lieu » et ces « gens d’ailleurs » qui sont ceux qui entendent protéger la nature. Or, ceux qui entendent la promouvoir ne sont pas toujours d’accord sur ce qu’il conviendrait de faire, et les « gens du lieu » ne sont pas tous hostiles à toutes les mesures prises en faveur de la nature, loin de là.

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Agriculture, biodiversité et territoires

2011






2010 fut l’année mondiale de la biodiversité.

Sa protection est aujourd’hui reconnue comme un enjeu majeur pour l’ensemble de l’Humanité et un révélateur de la capacité de notre civilisation à répondre en plus des nôtres, aux besoins d’autres espèces. L’immense défi que nous devons tous relever consiste à proposer ensemble un projet de développement équilibré.

À notre échelle, Sol et Civilisation vous propose, dans cette Lettre, d’explorer la thématique de la biodiversité, de l’agriculture et du développement durable, ses leviers et enjeux. Pour ce faire, vous trouverez un article de Raphaël Larrere, sociologue et agronome qui s’intitule « Place de l’agriculture, entre nature et culture ». Cet article développe l’exposé donné lors d’une soirée débat en Mayenne et que nous avons eu plaisir à co-organiser avec nos partenaires locaux en novembre dernier sur le couple « agriculture-nature ».

Vous trouverez également une contribution de Bernard Chevassus-au-Louis, Inspecteur Général de l’Agriculture sur «la biodiversité, l’agriculture et le développement durable ». Gérard Hanus, Directeur du Parc Naturel Régional de Chartreuse formule pour sa part, une vision territoriale de cette problématique en réinterrogeant plus globalement l’outil PNR. Vous pourrez également lire la synthèse des dernières Assises de Sol et Civilisation. En outre, nous vous proposons de découvrir une nouvelle rubrique intitulée « Les tribunes libres » de Gérard de Caffarelli et de Michel Ménard. L’un et l’autre sont profondément liés à Sol et Civilisation pour avoir participé à la création de l’Association et pour l’avoir accompagnée. Leurs éclairages nous permettent d’aller plus loin sans négliger nos fondements.

À l’issue de cette lecture, nous vous invitons d’ores et déjà à réserver la date du 29 septembre 2011 pour les prochaines Assises de Sol et Civilisation. Elle correspond à la date anniversaire des 20 ans de l’Association et sera l’occasion pour nous tous de poser un regard sur nos actions et nos propositions tout en mettant en perspective les évolutions des territoires ruraux.

Ce numéro est le premier de l’année que vous recevez de Sol et Civilisation, aussi au nom de toute l’équipe de Sol et Civilisation, j’en profite pour vous souhaiter à tous une excellente année 2011.

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Le regard d’un économiste sur le rural aujourd’hui

2014



Dans cette interview, Francis AUBERT souligne les différents regards portés sur la ruralité à travers l’Europe. Il propose quelques grilles de lecture pour mieux comprendre les avantages économiques qui distinguent les espaces urbains des territoires ruraux.




Comment appréhender la notion du rural aujourd’hui ?

Dans le travail de la DATAR (maintenant Commissariat Général à l’Egalité des Territoires), les territoires ruraux retrouvent une place notamment avec des dispositifs comme l’Observatoire des territoires. Il s’agit désormais de mettre à contribution des instances comme l’Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE) pour redéfinir et caractériser le rural en France. La question de la définition est difficile car les contours du rural et de l’urbain sont très flous, leur délimitation repose sur un arbitrage conventionnel. Pourtant, l’exercice paraît plus que jamais nécessaire, ne serait-ce que pour être en mesure de poser les enjeux de ces territoires et d’adapter ainsi les politiques publiques.

Avant de rentrer dans les approches spécifiques à l’économie, dans la littérature générale, il me semble qu’il existe deux façons d’appréhender la notion de ruralité.

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La relation de l’homme à son espace : une des clefs d’un développement durable

2001



Dans ce discours, l’auteur rappelle les fondements de la création de Sol et Civilisation dont le cœur des préoccupations est de questionner la relation de l’homme à son espace, comme une des clefs d’un développement durable qui permet de rétablir des équilibres.




Mes chers amis, je suis particulièrement heureux d’ouvrir ces 10èmes assises de Sol et Civilisation en vous accueillant tous, et en vous remerciant très chaleureusement d’avoir pris quelques heures pour débattre d’un sujet d’actualité.

Je voudrais en profiter, si vous le permettez, pour vous rappeler que cela fait maintenant dix ans, nous avons lancé des équipes de réflexion autour de Sol et Civilisation. C’était après la grande manifestation qui a eu lieu le 29 septembre 1991, à Paris, où 300 000 paysans et ruraux ont réussi à interpeller la France entière en disant : « nous sommes encore là, nous pouvons rendre service à la société mais nous vous avertissons quand même qu’il est temps de réagir et de faire en sorte qu’il y ait une autre façon de réfléchir sur le monde paysan et le monde rural dans notre société française ».

Après cette grande manifestation, avec un certain nombre d’amis, notamment : Gérard de CAFFARELLI, Jean DUPUIS, dont je salue ici la mémoire,  qui a écrit un livre posthume « l’Aubergiste oublié » que je vous recommande très fortement, nous avons pensé qu’il serait peut être utile de créer une association nationale qui, à son humble niveau, pourrait réunir, ici ou là, tous les hommes de bonne volonté qui se préoccupent de l’avenir de notre société et qui essayent, aujourd’hui, de réfléchir aux équilibres nouveaux à trouver. Le 8 octobre 1991, dans un hôtel de la région parisienne, s’est déroulée une réunion d’une cinquantaine de personnes, venant de divers horizons, qui ont accepté de porter les fondements de cette association nationale que nous appelons Sol et Civilisation.

Je voulais rappeler simplement que lorsque nous avons, ensemble, réfléchi aux fondements de cette association, nous avions deux ou trois idées fortes qui, à mon avis, restent très présentes dans nos débats de société et qui, hélas, nous sont rappelées par l’actualité des événements que nous avons vécus aux États-Unis et à Toulouse.

La première est qu’il faut que l’on revienne à cette idée centrale qui est bien celle de replacer l’homme au centre des débats, de tous les débats ! L’homme, sa responsabilité, sa dignité, ses initiatives, ses rapports à autrui et au monde qui l’entoure : L’homme et la communauté doivent commander ensemble et avoir la possibilité de construire ces communautés successives qui permettront aux générations futures de s’y retrouver. L’homme, respecté en tant que personne, quelles que soient ses origines, sa race, sa philosophie et sa religion : l’homme au centre des débats.

La deuxième découle de la première : il faut essayer de retrouver une harmonie et un équilibre, une complémentarité astucieuse entre les divers milieux qui composent notre société. Dès le départ, nous avons dit que c’était le paysan qui était au cœur du débat, qu’il était l’homme des territoires et que c’est autour de lui que les milieux devaient se développer et s’activer. Les gens des villes devaient se retrouver ensuite autour de ce triptyque : paysans ruraux et urbains, pour faire en sorte qu’ensemble, en harmonie, on puisse retrouver un nouvel équilibre.

La troisième idée, c’est finalement faire en sorte que tous ces fondamentaux, homme, communauté, milieux, qui composent la société se retrouvent harmonieusement au sein de la planète, entre les continents. Travailler pour qu’ils essayent, ensemble, de cohabiter, de vivre et de réaliser leur devenir. Autrement dit, nous avions déjà lancé les idées fortes que nous appelons aujourd’hui la globalisation, la mondialisation, avec toutes ses dérives que vous connaissez aussi bien que moi.

Aujourd’hui, ces trois idées fondamentales que je viens de rappeler sont toujours au cœur de nos préoccupations et, finalement, nous ont amenées à réfléchir à ce problème qui est la relation de l’homme à son espace pour marquer nos 10 ans. Parce que nous pensons que c’est une des clefs d’un développement durable qui permet de rétablir des équilibres. C’est pour cela que nous avons, aujourd’hui, organisé cette journée et décidé de faire appel à toutes les compétences et les bonnes volontés.

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