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L’évolution du domaine qualité dans les entreprises

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur présente les trois étapes principales de l’évolution de la gestion de la qualité dans les entreprises depuis la seconde guerre mondiale. Il insiste sur les nouvelles approches et notions pour développer la qualité dans les entreprises aujourd’hui et voit une grande relation entre ce défi pour le milieu humain qu’est l’entreprise et les enjeux auxquels un territoire est confronté.




L’histoire du mouvement qualité dans le monde est décomposée en trois grandes étapes, liées à des problèmes de survie.

La qualité s’est développée dans le monde industriel pendant la deuxième guerre mondiale. La question qui s’est posée alors était très simple : comment avoir, aux Etats-Unis, une industrie de l’armement qui puisse fabriquer des porte-avions qui ne coulent pas, des chars qui fonctionnent et permettre ainsi à l’humanité libre d’être sauvegardée ?

C’est à cette époque que se sont développés tous les grands principes de la qualité à travers des systèmes permettant d’assurer la conformité des produits. La plupart de ces règles ont toujours cours.

A partir des années 70 …

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Pour des territoires ruraux vivants et entreprenants, des hommes acteurs et responsables

2003



Dans cet article, l’auteur développe les trois dimensions essentielles pour une relance du développement des territoires ruraux : favoriser les relations des hommes entre eux, la vie économique des territoires mais aussi la vie locale et l’organisation des territoires. Il s’agit in fine de trouver les conditions d’application d’une réelle subsidiarité.




En premier lieu, il nous paraît fondamental de réaffirmer que dans le contexte du XXIe siècle, la réussite d’une politique en faveur des territoires ruraux tient essentiellement au fait de reconnaître et d’assumer dans ses conséquences le principe que l’homme est l’acteur central de tout développement territorial durable.

Notre société française, comme beaucoup de sociétés industrialisées, vit sous le signe d’une triple rupture ; rupture interne du milieu rural avec des zones équilibrées économiquement et socialement et d’autres, nombreuses, en voie de dépérissement ; rupture interne du milieu urbain matérialisée par l’éclatement entre les centres villes et les banlieues qui deviennent souvent des ghettos d’exclusion ; et rupture du dialogue et de la connaissance entre milieux ruraux et milieux urbains.

Pour redonner chance à la société française, il faut une forte volonté de rééquilibrage pour effacer ces trois ruptures. Le territoire est un tout et c’est en tant que tel qu’il faut réapprendre à le gérer. Milieux ruraux et milieux urbains doivent se nourrir les uns les autres par un dialogue constructif.

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Agriculture, société, territoires : des liens porteurs de richesses

2005



Dans cette synthèse de colloque, l’auteur propose de considérer le territoire comme un point de rencontre entre agriculture et société. Parce qu’il est un socle de relations, un espace de ressources et un lieu stratégique pour envisager le développement économique. Ceci d’autant plus que les termes d’un nouveau pacte entre agriculture et société se font jour.




Par ce colloque, nous souhaitions illustrer les relations « agriculture-société » en présentant trois cas territoriaux différents, et nous interroger alors sur la place du territoire dans cette relation. Avec les exemples du vignoble de Marcillac, de la coopérative SICASELI et du territoire sénartais, quelques lignes de force sont apparues.

Le territoire reste le socle indispensable pour activer ou réactiver les relations entre les agriculteurs et les autres acteurs de la société.

Il n’y a certes pas et il ne peut y avoir de schéma unique. Chaque territoire, en fonction de sa géographie, de son histoire, de ses contextes socio-économiques, doit définir sa propre stratégie et engager des démarches adaptées. Toutefois, c’est bien dans la proximité que se nouent les relations et les coopérations nécessaires entre tous les acteurs : acteurs économiques, acteurs politiques et acteurs associatifs. Le territoire est alors le support de ces relations et un capital essentiel à valoriser pour le développement.

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Quelle place pour les territoires ruraux ?

2003



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose une grille de lecture pour guider l’évolution de la place des territoires ruraux dans les équilibres de société. Pour répondre pleinement à leurs trois fonctions économique, naturel et résidentielle, il s’agit d’accompagner l’évolution des relations ville-campagne mais aussi l’organisation des territoires ruraux eux-mêmes, en particulier au niveau de la commune et des pays.




Les ruraux ont besoin d’un message […] fort, clair et cohérent pour se situer dans un monde qui se cherche de nouveaux modes de vivre ensemble. L’avenir des territoires ruraux dépend de l’articulation qui sera trouvée entre les trois fonctions principales que la société du XXIe siècle attend de ses campagnes :

  • un espace économique à valoriser,

  • un espace naturel à protéger,

  • un espace résidentiel à aménager.

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L’association foncière pastorale : un outil de travail

1999






L’association foncière pastorale : un outil de travail

L’association foncière pastorale (AFP) réunit les propriétaires fonciers afin de gérer collectivement un périmètre à l’abandon ou en voie d’abandon. Cinq principaux objectifs sont visés :

  • Répondre aux objectifs de la politique paysagère intercommunale : le paysage est le fruit de la relation entre un milieu naturel et une société ;

  • Améliorer l’aspect paysager de la vallée, en rendant plus agréable le cadre de vie quotidien de ses habitants et plus attractive cette zone de montagne pour les touristes ;

  • Résorber progressivement les grands espaces en friche aux portes des villages ;

  • Développer et soutenir l’agriculture de montagne de la vallée par la mise en valeur de prés de fauche et de pâturages ;

  • Sauvegarder la vie économique et sociale des villages.

Les propriétaires du périmètre concerné s’associent tout en restant individuellement propriétaires de leurs biens fonciers. Il n’est en aucun cas question d’expropriation. La création de l’AFP permet à un propriétaire de vendre ou d’acheter des terrains du périmètre. L’AFP gère, entretient ou fait entretenir l’ensemble du périmètre, y effectue les travaux nécessaires à la remise en état.

Toutes les décisions sont prises en Assemblée générale, par l’ensemble des propriétaires ; la Direction départementale de l’agriculture et des forêts (DDAF) et le District Haute-Bruche aident à l’aboutissement du projet, dans la mesure où la majorité des propriétaires concernés y est favorable. L’association est largement soutenue financièrement par les divers partenaires institutionnels, une part restant à sa charge.

L’AFP est donc essentiellement un outil de travail pour faire en sorte qu’un espace naturel soit entretenu au lieu de perdre toute valeur agronomique, patrimoniale, paysagère…

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Remettre en valeur des fonds de vallées livrés à la friche

1999



Cet article reprend l’intervention de Pierre GRANDADAM lors d’une rencontre sur les problèmes complexes liés au vivant. L’auteur raconte comment, dans un partenariat étroit avec les acteurs du territoire (agriculteurs, propriétaires et habitants), les élus locaux ont initié la remise en valeur des fonds de vallées de la Haute-Bruche. Etape par étape, des outils comme l’association foncière pastorale ont été mobilisé et ont permis d’atteindre des résultats déjà satisfaisants, en particulier pour la qualité du paysage.




Pierre Grandadam est maire d’une commune qui couvre 2300 hectares dans cette vallée des Vosges. Un seul agriculteur y vit encore. Progressivement l’industrie textile et bon nombre d’exploitations agricoles ont disparu. L’espace s’est désagrégé. Les habitants se sont résignés à accepter ces espaces délaissés. Chacun s’est habitué à la friche, a perdu la volonté d’occuper l’espace. L’image symbole de cette évolution est assez désolante : des friches et des zones marécageuses dans laquelle les sapins, pieds dans l’eau toute l’année, crèvent l’un après l’autre.

En 1980, le District a souhaité initier une dynamique autour du paysage, afin de rouvrir les fonds de vallées, de les remettre en valeur.

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Gérer la qualité du vivant : clef de voûte d’un nouveau contrat de société

1998



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’aborder les enjeux du développement des territoires et des équilibres de société avec un regard nouveau : celui d’une gestion du vivant réactualisée. C’est pourquoi l’enjeu n’est pas seulement agricole. Pour l’auteur, il s’agit de reconsidérer le contrat entre la société et son agriculture, et plus largement ses territoires ruraux et l’ensemble des acteurs concernés, vis-à-vis de cette gestion du vivant.




L’image de l’apprenti sorcier ne s’est probablement jamais appliquée avec autant de pertinence que vis-à-vis du comportement de la société occidentale à l’égard du monde vivant. Chaque jour, un événement nous rappelle que ce monde vivant est par définition soumis aux lois de la biologie qui régissent des systèmes fondamentalement complexes. En dehors même des problèmes éthiques (clonage, OGM, etc.), les questions de vache folle, de qualité des eaux, de sécurité en montagne liée à la dégradation et l’inexploitation des terrains, de sécurité nucléaire nous rappellent que l’homme ne peut impunément s’affranchir du complexe nature dont il fait partie intégrante. […]

Dans toutes les dimensions de son activité, l’homme est confronté à des problèmes de qualité du vivant que ce soit son alimentation, son cadre de vie, ses relations aux autres qui s’intègrent dans la problématique générale de la qualité des territoires en tant que simultanément supports de l’activité et milieu de vie des hommes.

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Lien entre sol et civilisation : l’eau

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’envisager les enjeux de gestion de l’eau comme une opportunité pour positiver la fonction des agriculteurs et plus largement des gestionnaires des territoires ruraux. C’est pourquoi il faut selon lui considérer l’eau comme un « produit du sol » et non pas seulement comme un « don du ciel ».




Elément de civilisation urbaine, l’eau est un atout souvent cité de l’attractivité des territoires ruraux et de leurs paysages : ruisseaux et rivières, étangs et lacs, pêche à la truite ou au brochet, chasse aux canards, sports d’eau vive… donnent envie et peuvent faire rêver de vacances, voire d’une installation à la campagne.

En tant qu’un des principaux facteurs de l’environnement, un patrimoine, la volonté est forte de mieux protéger l’eau et de la valoriser : des emplois industriels nouveaux naissent de ce besoin de société. En tant que produit – c’est le cas de l’eau minérale mais aussi de l’eau potable, voire de l’eau brute dès lors qu’elle est vendue au mètre cube – la demande est de plus en plus forte : il est opportun, dans un pays inquiet de voir la demande saturée dans bien des domaines, de prêter attention à des biens de plus en plus recherchés pour lesquels des marchés sont à inventer, à structurer et à prendre.

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La SICA et le développement local

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur souligne l’intérêt, l’originalité et la modernité de l’outil SICA pour accompagner l’aménagement et l’organisation des territoires ruraux. Contrairement aux outils classiques du développement agricole, la SICA est une structure ouverte à l’ensemble des acteurs ruraux d’où probablement de nouvelles opportunités à rechercher aujourd’hui dans l’appui aux dynamiques de « pays ».




La société d’intérêt collectif agricole a été introduite dans notre droit par la grande Loi du 5 août 1920 qui organisait la société coopérative agricole et la caisse de crédit agricole mutuel. Aux SICA revenait l’équipement rural tel l’électrification rurale, grand projet de l’époque. L’équipement étant un bien collectif territorial, les SICA étaient ouvertes à tous les habitants ruraux, sous réserve que les agriculteurs possèdent la majorité en voix aux assemblées générales.

L’origine de cette grande loi d’organisation rurale se trouve dans l’héroïsme des paysans qui ont supporté le poids principal de la Guerre des tranchées (1914-18). Le « ils ont des droits sur nous » était le signe de la reconnaissance de la Nation, mais il découlait aussi du sentiment que les valeurs rurales ayant permis de tels hommes devaient être sauvegardées en vue du bien commun à venir.

Le souci du législateur était donc de protéger un style de vie si fertile en qualités humaines, que le modèle urbain qui se généralisait pouvait détruire, non par hostilité, mais parce que les critères qu’il génère sont incompatibles avec la spécificité des milieux ruraux.

Par la suite, la modernisation des exploitations agricoles, en agrandissant les surfaces, a poussé à l’exode rural. A un point tel que l’on s’est enfin aperçu qu’agriculteurs et éleveurs, s’ils étaient essentiels à la ruralité, n’en formaient pas la totalité.

Il existe à leurs côtés d’autres catégories sociales qui sont aussi des paysans, c’est-à-dire ceux qui font le pays et participent aux réalités rurales. La raréfaction croissante des agriculteurs et des éleveurs leur redonne une importance relative. Mais il est bien tard. Les concepts urbains juridiques et administratifs ont mis toute leur emprise sur ces acteurs de la ruralité autres qu’agricoles et la cohérence du tissu rural, toutes activités confondues, en est altérée !

Et nos SICA, justement ouvertes à toutes les catégories d’activités rurales, que deviennent-elles dans cette évolution ? Elles ont été totalement éclipsées par la réussite économique de la coopération agricole, par le succès bancaire prodigieux du Crédit Agricole. L’action du crédit et de la coopération agricoles reste certes profitable aux milieux ruraux. Mais en incarnent-ils encore l’esprit selon les critères de la Loi du 5 août 1920 ?

Alors pourquoi ne pas donner à la SICA conçue dès l’origine pour l’équipement rural une vocation particulière pour l’équipement du « pays », tel qu’il est défini par la Loi récente sur l’aménagement du territoire ? En n’oubliant pas bien sûr, que dans la tradition mutualiste, l’organisation d’un tissu social, c’est aussi de l’équipement, puisqu’il s’agit de donner à un milieu de vie les moyens de s’exprimer.

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Des montagnes, des ours et des hommes

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur témoigne des racines de son engagement dans les vallées du Haut-Béarn qui d’une situation de crise face au « problème de l’ours » l’ont conduit à porter une démarche patrimoniale pour ré-impliquer progressivement l’ensemble des acteurs qui revendiquent une responsabilité sur ce territoire où vivent les ours… un processus qui pour l’auteur part du principe que chacun dans son domaine ou sa compétence a quelque chose à faire pour le bien commun.




Je suis fils de berger transhumant. J’habite le village de Lourdios-Ichere dans les Pyrénées Atlantiques. C’est dans une ambiance chaleureuse que mon père nous a inculqués à mon frère, mes deux sœurs et moi une certaine idée du pays. Sans qu’il nous ait jamais donné l’obligation impérieuse d’y rester, j’ai compris ensuite qu’il avait fait ce qu’il fallait pour que nous ne suivions pas le mouvement général des jeunes qui partaient. Chaque fois que je voyais des maisons se fermer, j’avais le cœur serré : c’était une civilisation qui foutait le camp ! Et, d’une certaine manière, par notre silence, nous laissions faire cela.

Lorsqu’il s’est agi de choisir, c’est finalement mon frère qui a repris l’exploitation, le troupeau familial et la transhumance. J’ai été élu maire de ma commune à 21 ans, puis Conseiller Général. Je suis vice-président du Conseil Général, député suppléant. J’ai fait un peu de politique. Mais je n’ai jamais considéré la politique comme une fin en soi. C’est un moyen de réaliser des actions. Comme je ne voulais pas en être dépendant, j’ai créé mon propre bureau d’ingénieurs conseil. J’ai toujours continué à mener cette activité.

Au début de mon mandat de maire, nous avons créé un foyer rural à Lourdios, ce qui nous a permis de beaucoup voyager et de comprendre pas mal de choses. Nous sommes allés en Allemagne, en Irlande, en Autriche, à Cuba, en Egypte, en Israël et, en retour, nous recevions les gens chez nous. Lors de nos escales à Paris, nous retrouvions les copains qui avaient quitté le pays. Ils n’étaient pas partis de gaieté de cœur mais lorsqu’ils venaient au pays, ils affichaient un certain bonheur. A Paris, nous nous sommes vite rendu compte que ce n’était pas très exactement le cas. Paris n’était pas forcément l’Eldorado dont on m’avait parlé. Dans le fond, nous n’avions pas absolument tort de faire le choix de rester au pays. Nous n’étions pas tellement isolés. Nous établissions des liens et des relations lors de nos voyages qui ont donné un grand coup de moral à mon village de 80 habitants : pratiquement tous les jeunes ont décidé de s’y installer.

Nous vivons dans la seule région de France où vivent encore, d’une manière naturelle, quelques ours. Nous trouvions cela assez naturel, même si la cohabitation a toujours été difficile au fil des siècles.

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