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La gestion des ressources humaines en milieu rural : un défi territorial

2006



Dans cet article, le groupe de Toulouse souligne l’originalité de la gestion des ressources humaines en milieu rural. Pour la prendre en compte, il faut par conséquent développer des outils et des dispositifs spécifiques, appréhender cette problématique de façon transversale, d’où l’intérêt et l’opportunité de faire émerger dans les territoires une organisation tripartite : la triade d’acteurs.




Le territoire n’est pas qu’un espace neutre pour l’entreprise. Il peut même à l’inverse, surtout en milieu rural, générer des plus-values essentielles : ressources matérielles et humaines, atouts identitaires, solidarité entre acteurs.

Dans le champ de la gestion des ressources humaines, volet souvent stratégique pour les petites entreprises rurales, nous allons voir combien la dimension territoriale est devenue centrale. Pourtant, il n’en reste pas moins que conduire et monter des projets sur une base territoriale n’est pas chose aisée.

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La gestion des ressources humaines en milieu rural : l’exemple du Pays Couserans

2006



Dans cet article, l’auteur détaille une action menée par les élus locaux pour améliorer le développement socio-économique du territoire. La gestion prévisionnelle des emplois et des compétences s’y inscrit au travers de la recherche d’un développement local. L’expérience du Pays Couserans illustre l’enjeu que représente, à un moment donné et pour un territoire, la gestion des ressources humaines, ici dans le cadre d’une meilleure structuration des acteurs du territoire.




Petit bassin d’emploi pyrénéen, le Couserans occupe la partie occidentale du département de l’Ariège. Il est traversé par 18 vallées, dont celle du Salat. D’une superficie de 1700 km², il compte 29000 habitants (stabilité par apports migratoires), soit en moyenne 17 hab/km². Saint Girons, ville centre et carrefour du pays, compte environ 6300 habitants (recensement 1999 ; -14 % depuis 1982 au profit de son agglomération d’environ 12000 hab).

Le territoire se divise entre une zone de piémont à vocation agricole et résidentielle plutôt attractive au nord (300 – 600 mètres d’altitude) et une partie plus montagneuse au sud (jusqu’à 2800 mètres d’altitude), frontalière de l’Espagne, cul de sac mué par le tourisme saisonnier.

L’organisation administrative du territoire s’articule autour de 8 communautés de communes, (95 communes) réunies en Syndicat Mixte de pays.

En 1996 est créée une « Association de Développement du Couserans » (ADC), structure de coordination des procédures de « contrat de terroir » initiée par la Région. L’association est chargée, dès la fin 1998, de l’orientation vers la construction d’un pays Voynet, avant que soit envisagé ultérieurement, par l’échelon départemental, la création d’un parc naturel régional. Dans une démarche qui se veut aussi de « démocratie participative » et dans l’optique de la formation du « conseil de développement » du futur pays, les socioprofessionnels couserannais, les « forces vives locales », sont consultés, notamment pour le travail de réunion et de réflexion qui mènera à la rédaction de la « charte de pays ».

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La gestion des ressources humaines en milieu rural : l’expérience de la coopérative SICASELI

2006



Dans cet article, les auteurs présentent l’exemple du territoire du Ségala-Limargue sur lequel les acteurs économiques – entreprises puis associations – se sont mobilisés pour mettre en place, au fil des années, une gestion progressive de gestion des ressources humaines. Au travers de l’association Mode d’Emploi, du club d’entreprises et de la création d’une CUMA, les acteurs locaux se sont regroupés, organisés et tentent désormais de renforcer la triade d’acteurs. Les auteurs détaillent ainsi leur recherche d’un mode de gouvernance local permettant de répondre aux problèmes de gestion des ressources humaines sur le territoire : déficit de main-d’œuvre et de compétences prévisible dans les années à venir.




La SICASELI propose approvisionnement et services de proximité pour les agriculteurs de 5 cantons autour de Lacapelle Marival dans le Nord Est du Lot. Depuis le début des années 90, elle est interpellée par la situation de son territoire qui présente les problématiques courantes des zones rurales : désertion des métiers de l’agriculture et de l’artisanat, augmentation du prix du foncier et arrivée de nouveaux habitants aux attentes et besoins nouveaux. La viabilité de l’activité économique sur ce territoire est remise en question par la diminution des actifs et des compétences. Forte de ce constat, la coopérative en appelle à tous les acteurs pour réfléchir et apporter des réponses collectives et intersectorielles.
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L’innovation territoriale de la SICASELI

2009



Dans cet interview, l’auteur éclaire sa conception de l’innovation sur le territoire de la coopérative SICASELI, le Ségala-Limargue, et détaille sa façon de la conduire et de l’accompagner, tant sur le plan technique qu’organisationnel.




L’innovation est l’issue économique d’une idée nouvelle. Elle se distingue d’une invention par le fait que l’idée a trouvé son public dans la mesure où celui-ci s’en est emparé. L’innovation implique une certaine créativité et le risque qui lui est inhérent. Innover, c’est trouver une vraie capacité à être créatif et à travailler ensemble. Les innovations doivent être au cœur des entreprises telles que les coopératives. L’innovation, à l’heure où les entreprises et les profits s’individualisent, c’est justement de pouvoir compter sur la solidarité et la mutualisation.
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Vive l’innovation territoriale !

2009



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur nous invite à donner une dimension nouvelle au territoire. Certes il est un espace incontournable de rencontre et le socle d’un développement fondé sur la mise en mouvement des hommes, mais il peut aussi être le creuset de l’innovation pour mieux agir ensemble…




Crise énergétique, gestion des ressources naturelles, biodiversité, réchauffement climatique, les espaces ruraux sont chaque jour interpellés par les nouveaux défis écologiques planétaires et doivent répondre, surtout en Europe, à des attentes sociétales de plus en plus pressantes. Parallèlement, leur attractivité nouvelle mais également l’ouverture des marchés, notamment agricoles, modifient en profondeur les moteurs de leur économie. Les activités des services et plus largement l’économie résidentielle deviennent ainsi prépondérantes dans certaines régions alors même que les filières agricoles doivent trouver partout des ressorts de compétitivité et d’innovation. Pourtant, si la ruralité a toujours connu le mouvement, la rapidité des évolutions actuelles lui demande aujourd’hui un effort d’adaptation sans précédant.

Depuis plusieurs années, le territoire apparaît comme un levier pertinent pour répondre à cette nouvelle donne où se déploient la globalisation des enjeux et la mondialisation marchande. La politique des Pays, les Pôles d’excellence rurale, les Pôles de compétitivité, les programmes Leader européens confirment ainsi l’intérêt des pouvoirs publics pour les dynamiques locales où se mobilisent l’ensemble des volontés. Nous défendons à Sol et Civilisation cette approche territoriale du développement tant elle permet l’intégration des problématiques et la mise en mouvement des hommes. Notre dernier Cahier, paru ce printemps, reprend cette question et montre combien le territoire, notamment en milieu rural, reste effectivement l’un des meilleurs vecteurs de développement, pour peu que l’on considère le développement comme la capacité à progresser ensemble pour prendre en charge de manière coordonnée et cohérente un ensemble de problèmes hétérogènes.

La complexification des enjeux, l’emboîtement des échelons de décision, la multiplication des parties prenantes demandent néanmoins aujourd’hui aux acteurs d’accomplir un saut qualitatif dans la construction de leurs réponses tant individuelles que collectives. Le territoire ne peut plus en effet se limiter à un espace de rencontre et d’élaboration de projets transversaux, il doit être désormais davantage le creuset de l’innovation, qu’elle soit technique ou organisationnelle, pour mieux agir ensemble, anticiper et créer des nouvelles valeurs économiques, sociales et environnementales.

Pour éclairer ce débat, nous avons organisé début juin avec le Groupe Monde Rural une matinée de débat et d’échanges. Cette Lettre reprend pour partie les points de vue et les témoignages qui s’y sont exprimés, que nous complétons avec la présentation d’une démarche territoriale remarquable au Luxembourg dans la commune de Beckerich.

La ruralité montre encore une fois qu’elle reste inventive et porteuse de solutions nouvelles. Dans cette période de crise où il faut se réinventer, les territoires ruraux restent certainement les meilleurs alliés pour rebondir et contribuer à construire de nouveaux équilibres. Nous reprendrons et élargirons ce débat lors de nos prochaines assises, le 15 octobre prochain.

D’ici là, je vous souhaite une bonne lecture et un bon été.

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La gestion des ressources humaines dans les territoires, une réflexion de longue haleine

2006



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur reprend l’histoire, l’organisation et la conduite des réflexions du groupe de Toulouse, véritable cheminement d’une préoccupation commune pour l’entrepreneuriat en milieu rural vers l’approfondissement des conditions et moyens d’une bonne gouvernance territoriale, en particulier en matière de gestion des ressources humaines dans les territoires…




C’est autour de Raymond LACOMBE, président fondateur de Sol et Civilisation, que s’est constitué ce qu’on appelle le « groupe de Toulouse » parce que ce groupe a été accueilli à Toulouse par l’Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture de Purpan et par son directeur de l’époque, Pierre TAPIE.

Se réunissant à Toulouse à partir de 2001, le groupe de réflexion s’est donc composé pour l’essentiel de personnes travaillant en Midi-Pyrénées et se reconnaissant dans la double mouvance du développement territorial rural et de la pensée de Raymond LACOMBE, leader agricole charismatique, trop vite disparu en février 2002. C’est au demeurant celui-ci, qui a assuré avec énergie et dynamisme la véritable animation du groupe, autour d’un sujet qui lui était cher : « entreprendre en milieu rural ».

Les participants à cette réflexion étaient issus des institutions agricoles mais aussi de l’appui au développement et de la formation. Le groupe a auditionné diverses expériences de terrain et s’est progressivement forgé une logique commune exposée au cours d’un colloque qui s’est tenu à l’ESA Purpan en novembre 2001 et dont les principales conclusions ont été rapportées dans la lettre de Sol et Civilisation n°22 et au cours des assises nationales de septembre 2002.

La conclusion essentielle de ces travaux était de mettre le projecteur sur ce qui semblait le principal obstacle au fait d’entreprendre en milieu rural, à savoir le cloisonnement et les disfonctionnements entre les acteurs (entreprises, associations, élus). Le développement économique en milieu rural n’est pas seulement une question d’opportunités ou de positionnement judicieux mais également le fruit d’une bonne gouvernance territoriale.

Après une période de transition, le groupe de Toulouse s’est remis au travail. Dans la continuité des réflexions antérieures, il a semblé opportun de creuser plus particulièrement une question qui se pose aujourd’hui de manière cruciale aux acteurs ruraux, celle de la gestion des ressources humaines dans le territoire.

Pour mettre en œuvre cette réflexion, le groupe dit « de Toulouse » s’est ouvert à d’autres membres et a reconduit sa méthode : auditions d’experts et témoignages, travaux collectifs, publications. Vous trouverez dans les pages suivantes le fruit de cette première phase d’investigation : un article introductif situe l’intérêt de cette question, trois exemples en illustrent des aspects différents et un dernier article en tire les enseignements préliminaires.

A l’heure où la concurrence entre territoires est de plus en plus forte, au moment où le monde se complexifie davantage chaque jour, la richesse humaine des milieux ruraux constitue, à n’en point douter, une force de premier plan pour ces territoires s’ils souhaitent vivre et se développer. Il serait vain de croire pourtant que ce potentiel humain se maintient de lui-même. La rapidité des changements, la plasticité des évolutions font qu’il faut sans cesse s’adapter. Là encore, la réponse semble se trouver dans l’émergence d’une gouvernance adaptée associant les différents acteurs.

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La gestion du vivant : une stratégie d’avenir pour la société et l’agriculture

2005



Dans cet article, l’auteur recherche les conditions pour impliquer les agriculteurs et l’agriculture au cœur du projet de développement durable que recherche la société. En revenant sur les critères courants de développement durable, il propose d’éclairer une voie nouvelle fondée sur la prise en charge du vivant dans une approche de qualité totale. Comment les agriculteurs peuvent-ils se saisir du rôle stratégique qu’ils peuvent y jouer ?




L’agriculture est-elle une activité d’avenir en France et en Europe, comme ailleurs dans les territoires du monde ? Les agriculteurs peuvent-ils répondre seuls à cette question ? La société fait-elle le lien, à travers sa recherche de développement durable, entre la qualité du vivant qu’elle recherche et l’agriculture ?

Au carrefour de l’alimentation, de la gestion de la qualité de la nature, de l’ambiance des territoires, les agriculteurs ont potentiellement un rôle à jouer. Mais, l’agriculture est-elle ainsi reconnue comme une activité de gestion du vivant ? Cette reconnaissance va de moins en moins de soi. Il faut des promoteurs, des chemins, des actes pour que la société se dote d’une véritable gestion de la qualité du vivant, dans chaque territoire de la biosphère.

N’est-ce pas une vaste et nécessaire ambition pour les agriculteurs que de promouvoir, de façon opérationnelle, par une stratégie de la qualité totale, une agriculture durable dans les territoires du monde ?

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Pour une gestion en bien commun du territoire du Haut-Béarn

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur présente le territoire de l’Institution Patrimoniale du Haut-Béarn, le « pays des hommes et des ours », et rappelle les les origines, les objectifs, et les missions de cette instance : « se concerter, décider et agir ensemble, pour faire en sorte que chacun retrouve sa place, sa dignité, et que sa parole serve au bien commun pour tout le territoire ».




Au pays des hommes et des ours

Le territoire de l’Institution Patrimoniale du Haut-Béarn se situe dans le vaste ensemble pyrénéen, plus précisément dans les Pyrénées-Atlantiques, autour de trois vallées d’altitude : à l’est la Vallée d’Ossau qui débouche sur l’Espagne par le col du Pourtalet, la vallée d’Aspe par le tunnel du Somport, et la vallée du Barétous qui débouche sur l’Espagne par le col de la Pierre Saint-Martin. Il est composé de 20 communes toutes signataires de la « Charte de développement durable des vallées béarnaises et de protection de l’ours ». Un territoire de 6600 habitants pour une superficie de 100000 hectares. Le Parc National, réparti sur le département des Hautes-Pyrénées (2/3) et les vallées du Haut-Béarn (1/3), couvre 15 % de ce territoire.

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Les entreprises face aux mutations

2003



Dans cet article qui reprend son intervention aux Assises sur l’entrepreneuriat en milieu rural, l’auteur détaille trois principes essentiels à ses yeux pour la compétitivité des entreprises, dans un monde ouvert et changeant : le principe de contingence, celui de changement et enfin le principe de reconnaissance mutuelle.




Front extérieur, front intérieur : même combat !

Quelles que soient les incertitudes de l’avenir, les entreprises seront confrontées aux mêmes tendances et devront faire face aux mêmes ruptures. C’est donc bien, comme toujours, les structures, les comportements et la qualité des hommes qui feront la différence entre les gagnants et les perdants. C’est aussi la raison pour laquelle il y a des entreprises performantes dans des secteurs dits en déclin et d’autres en perte dans des secteurs dits porteurs. Ainsi, lorsqu’une entreprise est en difficulté, il ne sert à rien de chercher un bouc émissaire dans la technologie ou dans la concurrence déloyale, ni de la subventionner. Tout s’explique le plus souvent par un défaut de qualité du management incapable d’anticiper, d’innover et de motiver les hommes.

Pourquoi et comment anticiper ? Quelles sont les conséquences stratégiques des mutations de l’environnement ? Comment relever le défi de la motivation des hommes ? Et finalement quel est l’avenir du management ? Les réponses à ces questions ne sont pas dissociables car la motivation interne et la stratégie externe se fécondent mutuellement. […]

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« Projet de territoire » : définition de termes

2002



Dans cet encart, l’auteur éclaire la distinction entre trois expressions courantes pour évoquer le territoire : projet de territoire, territoire de projets, territoire de programmation.




Le projet de territoire est la manière actuelle (loi Voynet) de présenter la nécessité d’une réflexion stratégique cadrant et dynamisant les projets professionnels.

Ces projets s’exercent sur des territoires (territoire de projets) qui ne coïncident pas avec ce projet de territoire, d’où l’idée de « géométrie variable » car la vie économique ne coïncide ni avec la dimension sociologique, ni avec la dimension administrative.

La programmation introduit une complication supplémentaire en générant des cloisonnements administratifs, sectoriels, financiers (territoire de programmation).

Ainsi, un dossier de développement des Pyrénées Atlantiques concernera un projet de territoire (par exemple La Soûle) mais aussi un territoire de projet interdépartemental et transvalléen (les Pyrénées Centrales) et des clivages liés à la programmation sectorielle (par exemple l’agriculture), à l’aspect administratif (par exemple le canton) et à la ligne budgétaire (tel type de crédit).

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