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L’audit patrimonial : un outil nouveau au service de l’action en commun

1996





Un audit patrimonial se déroule en général en trois phases.

La première est qualifiée de « macro-systémique ». L’auditeur rencontre les acteurs qui ont une action ou une vision globale de la question :: Conseil Général, Conseil Régional, administrations, chambres consulaires, associations…

Ensuite, se déroule la phase « micro-systémique » au cours de laquelle sont écoutés les acteurs de terrain (élus locaux, socio-professionnels…) suivant les mêmes principes et la même grille d’analyse.

Les entretiens sont menés selon des règles strictes de déontologie : le commanditaire de l’audit est clairement identifié ; il est bien clair que la personne auditionnée accepte librement de participer à l’audit et que ce qu’elle dira n’engage ni l’auditeur, ni le commanditaire à agir ; la confidentialité absolue de ses propos lui est garantie ; enfin, la diffusion du rapport d’audit est gérée par le commanditaire.

Quatre registres à la grille d’analyse :

  • Identification des problèmes qui se posent, des entités naturelles et humaines concernées.

  • Diagnostic des actions engagées pour répondre à ces problèmes.

  • Prospective : échelle géographique et échelle de temps auxquelles les problèmes vont se jouer, se résoudre. Description de trois scénarios que la personne qualifie : un positif, un tendanciel, un négatif.

  • Enfin, l’auditeur recueille toutes les propositions d’actions des acteurs en leur demandant quel est le système d’action dans lequel ils sont prêts à s’engager et qu’ils veulent construire. Cette partie différencie l’audit d’une étude classique. L’audit patrimonial vise en effet à mobiliser les acteurs en sollicitant leur expertise.

Chacune de ces deux phases peut être conclue, à la demande du commanditaire, par une restitution publique auprès de toutes les personnes rencontrées par l’auditeur.

Enfin, vient la phase d’intégration « micro-macro systémique » au cours de laquelle l’auditeur intègre ce qu’il a entendu lors des phases « macro » et « micro », dans le but de proposer une nouvelle organisation de l’action aux acteurs.

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Expliciter un jeu à somme positive : l’exemple de l’orange

1996



Sur une table : une orange et un couteau. Autour de la table : Sophie et Marie.
Comment partager l’orange pour obtenir un jeu à somme positive ?




Sur une table : une orange et un couteau. Autour de la table : Sophie et Marie.

Comment partager l’orange pour obtenir un jeu à somme positive ?

1 « Couper l’orange en deux et en donner une moitié à Sophie et l’autre moitié à Marie. » C’est un jeu à somme nulle.

2 « Il vaut mieux retirer le couteau pour ne pas qu’elles se disputent. » Ce serait un jeu à somme négative.

3 « Les écouter attentivement et de manière confidentielle : Sophie veut le zeste pour faire un gâteau et Marie veut la pulpe pour boire un jus. » C’est l’explicitation d’un jeu à somme positive.

(1) Exemple tiré de Comment réussir une négociation?, de Fisher, Uri et Patton (éditions du Seuil, 1981)

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La goutte d’eau, l’ours et le milieu rural

1996



Comment faire se rencontrer plusieurs représentations d’une même situation ? Comment faire que la recherche de liberté de l’homme et la qualité de la nature se renforcent ? Comment impliquer les hommes face de réalités en mouvement et en interaction ? Comment susciter le changement de comportement d’un ensemble d’acteurs ? Dans cet article, l’auteur retrace les principaux constats et questionnements qui l’ont conduit à formaliser l’approche patrimoniale.




S’agissant de la même nappe phréatique, une première constatation assez curieuse…

Pour certains, les « économistes », une goutte d’eau est une ressource économique. Leur langage n’est qu’économique. Pour d’autres, les écologistes, c’est un milieu de vie. Ils proposent un discours écologique. Pour d’autres encore, les « technico-administratifs », c’est à la fois une ressource économique et un milieu de vie, mais en tout cas, c’est toujours un objet de gestion publique. Il faut donc lui appliquer des règles publiques dans le cadre d’une approche administrative.

Pourtant, c’est la même goutte d’eau ! L’eau pose un problème tout simple : elle a une multitude de dimensions. Une multitude de personnes sont en relation avec elle. Mais leurs différents regards sur l’eau ne se rencontrent pas, ne s’enrichissent nulle part et, pire, ils se désorganisent les uns les autres.

Un de nos gros problèmes aujourd’hui, c’est d’admettre que le mot « eau » a un contenu sémantique très divers selon les acteurs, mais que c’est de la même eau dont il s’agit.

Deuxième fait assez bizarre.

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Le bien commun

1998



Dans cet encart, l’auteur dessine à grands traits sa conception du bien commun… et de sa gestion.




Au delà des actions liées à la propriété publique et privée, le maintien ou l’amélioration de la qualité de nombreux systèmes complexes et multi-acteurs requiert des actions mettant en jeu les relations des acteurs entre eux. Si les acteurs s’engagent volontairement pour organiser et gérer ces relations en vue de résoudre les problèmes de qualité, il y a alors prise en charge de ces problèmes qui deviennent « bien commun » ou « patrimoine commun ».

La gestion en bien commun apparaît souvent comme une condition déterminante de la qualité des systèmes complexes. Elle repose sur 1’échange, la communication et la négociation. Elle peut être spontanée lorsque la qualité à gérer est la survie du groupe.

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Une gestion en bien commun de leur milieu de vie par des hommes responsables, élément clef du retour à l’équilibre de notre société

1996



Dans cet article, l’auteur précise les principes et objectifs de l’action de Sol et Civilisation, tournée vers un rééquilibrage de la société qui se fonde sur un comportement nouveau des acteurs. L’objectif est bien de promouvoir un Homme actif et responsable et pour cela d’explorer de nouvelles méthodes et de nouveaux outils pour que l’Homme puisse être pleinement acteur de son propre développement. Deux exigences liées ensemble : la recherche-action!




Un rééquilibrage de la société exige un comportement nouveau des acteurs

Dans la vie des individus et des sociétés, comme en physique, le déséquilibre est souvent facteur de mouvement et à ce titre, peut procurer des effets positifs. Cependant, lorsqu’il affecte la société de manière excessive, il engendre des conséquences négatives, souvent cumulatives, qu’il devient difficile de surmonter.

Beaucoup d’indices conduisent à penser que notre société ne parvient plus, par les modes de raisonnement et les méthodes en vigueur, à juguler une évolution inexorable vers un démantèlement qui, après avoir frappé la société dans son organisation, atteint les individus dans leur comportement social.

S’il est de bon ton d’incriminer le mode d’organisation dominant actuel, qualifié de libéralisme et son corollaire la mondialisation permise par le progrès des techniques de communication et de transport, il faut considérer que ces deux phénomènes ne sont que des facteurs d’accélération d’un processus entamé de longue date.

Sol et Civilisation a en effet déjà exprimé l’idée qu’une des origines de cette situation est à rechercher dans la position devenue dominante du système urbano-industriel quant à son influence sur les modes d’organisation et de gestion de notre société.

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L’innovation agricole et les politiques régionales en Ile-de-France

2007



Dans son discours, l’auteur rappelle la dimension agricole et rurale de la région Ile-de-France, tant sur le plan géographique qu’économique. Dès lors pour le président de la région Ile-de-France, l’enjeu est d’accompagner l’agriculture et l’espace rural pour conduire l’innovation nécessaire face aux défis de compétitivité, pour créer de nouvelles valeurs ajoutées, pour protéger les espaces naturels mais aussi maintenir des territoires vivants.




Je crois qu’on n’associe pas tellement l’Ile-de-France à l’agriculture. En général il y a d’autres images qui viennent à l’esprit, d’autres couleurs que le vert. Pourtant, c’est vrai que l’Ile-de-France est une région très urbanisée, la plus urbanisée, c’est vrai que c’est une région industrielle, une des plus industrielle, une région de services aussi, des services financiers par exemple. C’est une terre de recherche aussi, elle compte 45% des chercheurs du pays et concentre l’essentiel des grands centres de recherche. C’est une terre de patrimoine immobilier très important. Il y a 25 millions de mètres carrés de bureaux en Ile-de-France, c’est la première surface immobilière de bureaux ! Cette année, la région accueillera plus d’entreprises étrangères que Londres.
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Vers un projet agricole pour la ville nouvelle de Sénart

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur retrace à grands traits l’histoire de la ville nouvelle de Sénart et de la place progressive qu’y ont pris les agriculteurs et l’agriculture. C’est ainsi que l’auteur décrit une situation atypique qui mixe agriculture et ville et nécessite de plus en plus de penser le projet agricole comme un projet dans la ville, voire même comme une partie du projet de ville. A travers ce cheminement, l’auteur éclaire les voies de relations nouvelles entre les agriculteurs et les habitants d’un territoire très urbanisé.




A travers mon témoignage, je souhaite avant tout vous faire partager l’histoire singulière de la plaine de Sénart et surtout le ressenti de tous les hommes qui l’habitent. Comment ils ont ressenti le choc de l’urbanisation ? Qu’est-ce que cela a impliqué dans leur façon de vivre ? Et puis comment, aujourd’hui, nous tentons ensemble une reconstruction ?

Une terre généreuse

Sénart, située à 30 kilomètres au Sud-est de Paris, étalée sur 2 départements – l’Essonne et la Seine et Marne – constitue un périmètre de 12000 hectares. Ses sols, d’une qualité agricole exceptionnelle – plus d’un mètre de limon sur les calcaires de Brie – sont assis sur l’énorme nappe de Champigny qui abreuve Paris et la région parisienne. Toujours les hommes ont cultivé cette terre briarde, et il faut dire que tout y pousse dans les meilleures conditions. La forêt de Sénart, qui fait partie du territoire, a constitué pendant longtemps une réserve de chasse du roi. C’était une forêt très giboyeuse, le roi s’y rendait par la Seine puis y accédait à travers une allée royale qui traverse champs et forêt. Il faut ajouter aussi que l’agriculture qui a été pratiquée sur ces territoires a toujours nourri Paris en farine, en blé, en lait, en viande, en foin, et cela pour la simple et bonne raison que ce territoire était situé à une journée de charrette à cheval de Paris, pour l’aller et le retour.

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La démarche patrimoniale

2006



Dans cet article, les auteurs synthétisent les grandes lignes de la démarche patrimoniale. Centrée sur la gestion du vivant donc la gestion de la complexité, la démarche patrimoniale permet de faire évoluer le comportement d’un ensemble d’acteurs en interaction face à un problème. En illustrant la définition de la « gestion de la qualité du vivant » avec la gestion d’une rivière, les auteurs distinguent les limites des approches universalistes actuelles et propose d’engager une autre voie, celle de l’approche patrimoniale pour accompagner les acteurs vers une meilleure de la gestion du vivant.




La gestion du vivant, un enjeu majeur pour notre société

Tout au long de son parcours personnel et professionnel, Henry Ollagnon s’est intéressé à la question de la gestion du vivant par les hommes à travers de nombreux sujets : la gestion des espèces, des ressources et des milieux naturels, la gestion des territoires, la gestion des crises, l’ingénierie des projets complexes, l’adaptation stratégique des gestionnaires du vivant au développement durable. Pour lui, le vivant émerge aujourd’hui comme un révélateur d’une crise profonde de nos sociétés, basée sur une conception de la modernité qui exclue tout ce qui est complexe, circulant, évolutif pour le réduire à du mesurable, causal, stable. Cette crise du vivant se manifeste, pour de nombreux acteurs publics et privés, par des problèmes nouveaux, mais suscite aussi des projets pour un renouvellement de la gestion des territoires, des produits et de la nature. Rechercher les conditions et les moyens d’une meilleure gestion de la qualité du vivant n’est pas seulement, se confronter à des problèmes ou monter des projets, c’est aussi entreprendre un chemin original pour la connaissance et l’action en univers complexe. Henry Ollagnon a ainsi exposé les concepts et les méthodes d’une « gestion patrimoniale de la qualité du vivant ».

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Œconomie et territoire, deux retours aux sources pour nous projeter dans le 21e siècle

2009



Dans cet article, l’auteur nous invite à revenir aux sources de « l’économie », c’est à dire à l’oeconomie comme l’art de penser les relations entre les choses et entre les hommes. Pour l’auteur, ce retour à l’oeconomie est évidemment complémentaire d’un retour au territoire, échelle d’organisation du développement économie et social, mais aussi et probablement surtout parce que l’économie réelle repose sur la confiance, dont le territoire est l’un des îlots.




Jusqu’au milieu du 18e siècle ce n’est pas le mot économie qui était utilisé pour désigner ce que l’on entend aujourd’hui par ce terme, l’organisation collective du système de production et d’échange qui lie les hommes et femmes entre eux et nous relie à la planète. C’était le mot œconomie.

Comme le dit fort bien le fameux botaniste Karl Von Linné (1707-1778) dans son livre intitulé Principes de l’œconomie, publié en 1752, l’œconomie, c’est « l’art de préparer des choses naturelles à notre usage, l’art de tirer parti de tous les biens de la nature ». Les « lois de l’œconomie » auxquelles il fait allusion dans son livre ne sont pas ce que nous entendons aujourd’hui sous ce terme et ce qui est enseigné sur les bancs de l’université : le fonctionnement des marchés, la substitution du capital au travail ou encore de la théorie de la monnaie. Dans un monde encore largement dominé par la production agricole, l’œconomie est l’art de tirer parti de la nature ou, comme on le disait à l’époque, l’art d’être « ménager de la nature ». Notre connaissance des lois physiques ou, comme on dirait maintenant, des écosystèmes, est le moyen pour chaque peuple de tirer parti au mieux des ressources propres à chaque contexte et à chaque pays. Plus d’un siècle plus tôt, le Français Antoine de Montchrestien (1575-1621) avait écrit en 1615 un Traité de l’œconomie politique, défini comme « l’art de gérer et les hommes et les choses ». Il parle même de « mesnagerie publique » d’où va dériver aussi bien l’expression « économie ménagère » que le terme moderne de management. L’œconomie est alors l’art de penser les relations entre les choses, les relations entre les hommes.

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Les transformations des campagnes françaises au début du XXIe siècle

2005



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose en trois temps de reconsidérer les campagnes et d’éclairer leurs transformations. Peut-on encore parler de ruralité ou ne faut-il pas plutôt considérer les ruralités d’aujourd’hui pour décrire les dynamiques des espaces ruraux? L’auteur décrypte ensuite les 7 ruptures qui conduisent selon lui à la recomposition leurs recompositions autour de trois dimensions : agricole, résidentielle et naturelle. Pour assurer un développement local de ces territoires ruraux, il s’agit dès lors de prendre en charge cette recomposition à travers quatre défis.




A la fin du XXe siècle, le monde rural français comptait un peu plus de 13 millions d’habitants, c’est à peu près le même que celui de la France de 1960. Cependant, en 1962, le chiffre de 13 millions d’habitants représentait 30 % de la population française alors qu’aujourd’hui il n’en représente plus que 23 %, la France ayant gagné 10 millions d’habitants au cours de cette période.

Ruralité et Ruralités

13 millions d’habitants, c’est l’aboutissement du grand mouvement séculaire d’exode rural qui naît autour de la décennie 1860-1870 ; à un moment où 80 % de la population française vivait en milieu rural. Derrière ce chiffre se cachent quatre dynamiques démographiques qui correspondent à quatre espaces ruraux bien distincts.

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