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L’histoire du processus de certification forestière

2000



Les faits marquants de l’histoire du processus de certification




Les faits marquants de l’histoire du processus de certification

  • Des acteurs concernés nombreux : propriétaires, industriels, écologistes, Etat… qui interviennent à des niveaux différents : local, régional national et international.

  • Le déclenchement : le refus des acteurs de la filière de se voir imposer unilatéralement des normes et des critères par les seules ONG internationales de l’environnement.

  • L’échec de « l’auto proclamation » et le succès du processus de Versailles que l’on peut qualifier de concertation itérative.

  • La création d’un outil nouveau pour inscrire cette concertation dans le temps et assurer la cohérence du dispositif entre les différents niveaux : le PEFC.

  • Les résultats : une dynamique nouvelle et évolutive qui laisse penser que les attentes des forestiers d’une part et de la société d’autre part seront satisfaites.

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Gestion durable des forêts

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur rappelle les liens historiques entre certification forestière et gestion durable des forêts, détaille l’émergence de cette notion en France et en Europe et son appropriation par les forestiers privés et acteurs de la filière bois à travers le système PEFC, qui se distingue de l’approche PFC.




La gestion durable signifie la gérance et l’utilisation des forêts et des terrains boisés d’une manière et d’une intensité telles qu’elles maintiennent leur diversité biologique, leur productivité, leur capacité de régénération, leur vitalité et leur capacité à satisfaire actuellement et pour le futur, les fonctions écologiques, économiques et sociales pertinentes, aux niveaux local, national et mondial et qu’elles ne causent pas de préjudices à d’autres écosystèmes.
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De la gestion durable des forêts

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur rappelle les liens historiques entre certification forestière et gestion durable des forêts, détaille l’émergence de cette notion en France et en Europe et son appropriation par les forestiers privés et acteurs de la filière bois à travers le système PEFC, qui se distingue de l’approche PFC.




Les forêts sont des milieux particuliers, caractérisés par la longueur des cycles de production : le forestier travaille pour son arrière-petit-enfant… Sans le moteur puissant de l’attachement à la terre et le sens patrimonial de leurs détenteurs, les forêts ne seraient que de vastes espaces improductifs, sans intérêt aucun pour les populations. Or les forêts produisent du bois et d’autres produits forestiers, certes. Ce sont aussi des lieux de détente et de récréation. Elles contribuent aux paysages et accueillent flore et faune. Elles protègent les sols, la qualité de l’eau. A l’échelle mondiale, elles contribuent à la lutte contre la désertification. Elles ont une fonction capitale en matière d’effet de serre et de capture du carbone atmosphérique…

Bref, les forêts sont au cœur des débats de sociétés actuels et ce d’autant plus qu’elles disparaissent à l’échelle de la planète. Il ne faut dès lors pas s’étonner que les forêts soient au cœur des grandes discussions internationales sur des sujets aussi divers que la désertification, la protection de la nature ou l’effet de serre ; qu’elles soient l’objet de toutes les convoitises, chacun cherchant à se les approprier pour en exploiter l’aspect qui l’intéresse le plus ; ou qu’elles soient l’objet de toutes les contestations, chacun voyant midi à sa porte.

Face à ces débats, la communauté internationale a réagi à partir de 1972, par des démarches au niveau onusien, puis paneuropéen. Peu à peu, l’idée de la codification de la gestion durable des forêts fait son chemin (avec la définition de critères, d’indicateurs quantitatifs et qualitatifs…), sans que les résolutions prises n’aient de caractère contraignant.

L’idée de certification forestière est née lors de la conférence de Rio qui introduit un lien entre commerce et gestion durable, invitant plus ou moins directement les acteurs, et pas seulement les Etats, à se mobiliser afin d’introduire une discrimination et disqualifier ceux qui gèrent mal, au profit de ceux qui gèrent bien.

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Crise du vivant et stratégies de prise en charge de la qualité commune

2000



Dans son éditorial, l’auteur s’inquiète de la montée des crises du vivant qui annoncent un défi majeur pour nos sociétés : élaborer des stratégies communes pour prendre charge la qualité du vivant par et avec l’ensemble des acteurs concernés, agriculteurs bien sûr, mais aussi acteurs de filière, consommateurs etc.




Une fois encore, les gros titres des journaux se font l’écho de notre incapacité à gérer le vivant de manière satisfaisante : vache folle, listériose, marée noire, qualité de l’eau, etc. J’ai noté deux types de réactions : d’une part, la volonté d’améliorer la connaissance scientifique des phénomènes en jeu, ce qui me semble tout à fait légitime bien qu’insuffisant et, d’autre part, la recherche d’un bouc-émissaire à qui on appliquerait des normes de plus en plus drastiques.

L’agriculteur, gestionnaire du vivant que je suis, sait bien que les choses ne sont malheureusement pas aussi simples. Il est clair qu’abaisser le taux de listéria acceptable dans un pot de rillettes ne suffira pas à prévenir les décès dus à la listériose. Il faut bien sûr que des normes de qualité s’appliquent à l’éleveur, à l’abatteur, au producteur de rillettes, au transporteur, au commerçant, au fabricant de réfrigérateurs. Mais il faut aussi que le consommateur ne rompe pas la chaîne du froid et nettoie son frigo régulièrement. Il faut que chacun des acteurs de la filière assume ses responsabilités. Complexe !

Par ailleurs, le maître mot dans ce type de crise est la confiance. Pour recréer de la confiance, l’interdiction, le répressif ne suffisent pas. Tous les acteurs concernés doivent s’accorder sur une stratégie de qualité commune, prise en charge par chacun. C’est là que cela devient réellement compliqué, car il ne s’agit pas que de technique, mais d’humain. Mettre en œuvre de telles stratégies appelle des comportements nouveaux qui doivent s’inscrire dans le temps et des méthodes nouvelles.

Sol et Civilisation s’attache depuis deux ans à caractériser et à promouvoir ces démarches et ces méthodes. Pour cela, elle réunit régulièrement des acteurs de divers secteurs d’activités, concernés par ce type de problèmes liés au vivant. Ce numéro 15 de la Lettre se fait l’écho d’une de ces journées de travail. Qu’il s’agisse de la gestion d’un territoire comme la Chartreuse, de grandes entreprises ou de la filière bois, des démarches nouvelles émergent. Elles méritent d’être mises en lumière car elles sont, à mon sens, porteuses d’espoir. Elles nous permettront de gérer des crises de gestion du vivant, qui ne vont pas manquer de se multiplier, témoin la pollution au cyanure du Danube !

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Politiques territoriales et complémentarités des villes et campagnes

1998



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur rappelle son souhait de voir les acteurs ruraux pleinement acteurs du développement rural et des complémentarités entre villes et campagnes. Une vision peu compatible avec l’approche urbaine de l’aménagement du territoire, qui guide l’évolution des politiques publiques.




Notre pays a bien du mal à retrouver le sens et les bases fondamentales d’une vraie politique d’aménagement de son territoire. Après la récente loi « Pasqua » de 1995 qui avait suscité un large débat sur tout le territoire, le nouveau gouvernement veut aussi sa loi sur « le développement durable du territoire ».

L’axe central des propos de Madame Voynet dans les premiers textes en préparation met l’urbain, la ville, au centre, comme moteur de la gestion du territoire. « C’est par la ville qu’on féconde les espaces ruraux ». Cette orientation de départ doit être revue sur le fond. Les grandes agglomérations sont en panne, les difficultés et les tensions s’y accumulent. Elles ne sont plus forcément la modernité d’hier mais plutôt le repoussoir pour beaucoup. Les grandes villes implosent sous les coups d’une surconcentration anarchique. Certains espaces ruraux souffrent d’anémie, les villes d’obésité. Combien de temps une tête qui ne cesse d’enfler peut-elle survivre à un corps atrophié ? Il faut donc corriger ce qui devient insupportable. Il faut revenir à l’essentiel, aux fondements. Comment réanimer, se réapproprier, irriguer l’ensemble du sol national ? Comment créer les conditions d’une répartition harmonieuse des hommes et des activités sur tout notre territoire ?

Une de nos chances françaises, c’est bien nos espaces, encore ouverts, entretenus et équipés par nos paysans, nos ruraux et nos élus locaux. Ils n’ont pas vocation à devenir des réserves naturelles ! Le débat véritable à ouvrir n’est pas de raisonner à partir de la ville ou de la campagne, d’opposer l’une à l’autre, mais au contraire de mettre en réseau les complémentarités, les richesses qui peuvent fleurir, dans une harmonie nouvelle du rural à la ville, de la ville à la campagne. Comment tous nos terroirs peuvent-ils se féconder, s’enrichir les uns les autres par des rapports fructueux entre ruraux et urbains ?

Pour cela l’engagement des populations locales et le respect de leur champ de responsabilité sont essentiels. Par le développement local territorial on multiplie les initiatives, on responsabilise les bonnes volontés, on dynamise la création d’activités et d’entreprises diverses. Cette démarche ascendante est essentielle ; elle doit être relayée et confortée par une volonté nationale et européenne des pouvoirs publics et des organisations nationales multiples pour favoriser et améliorer ce redéploiement sur l’ensemble du territoire. Pas de développement local durable sans volonté nationale et européenne qui organise les solidarités, donne un sens à cette prise de conscience commune entre « les gens d’en bas » et « les gens d’en haut ». C’est bien cela la démocratie : favoriser et encourager ce jeu complexe d’acteurs qui joignent leurs efforts pour permettre le bien commun général.

Ce numéro de notre lettre vous présente une expérience de terrain qui témoigne, sur un thème d’actualité, l’emploi, de la puissance créative des acteurs locaux dès lors qu’ils se retrouvent et élaborent par eux-mêmes des solutions à leurs problèmes communs.

Nos assises nationales du 24 septembre prochain, annoncées aussi par ces feuilles, permettront une confrontation sur ces thèmes. Plus que jamais la nécessité d’une mobilisation générale pour se réapproprier tout notre territoire s’impose à tous. Ne partons pas dans une mauvaise direction.

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L’adhésion des PECO, aspects socio-économiques

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur s’inscrit en faux vis-à-vis de la vision courante des agricultures des PECO, souvent perçues comme un avantage comparatif pour l’intégration de ces pays dans l’Union Européenne. En s’appuyant sur l’analyse de la compétitivité agricole, de la productivité, de la structuration des exploitations et en décryptant le retour à la terre comme un refuge anti-chômage, l’auteur propose de considérer le développement économique et agricole de ces pays non seulement comme un projet de développement rural classique mais comme une politique d’organisation et d’aménagement du territoire au sens large, c’est-à-dire des campagnes et des villes et des liens qu’elles peuvent entretenir.




La problématique du développement rural dans les PECO ne peut être celle de l’Union Européenne parce que, surtout dans certains pays, la création d’emplois ruraux non agricoles ne sera pas à la hauteur du défi posé par la destruction, mettons à l’horizon d’une dizaine d’années, de 5 ou 6 millions d’emplois agricoles. Il est clair que la clef majeure de la restructuration agricole sera une fois de plus, si on regarde les choses dans la longue durée, dans des migrations hors de l’agriculture, éventuellement vers les villes petites et moyennes. Mais le développement rural au sens étroit ne pourra pas être la seule réponse, d’où l’insistance finale sur des politiques de développement rural plus largement entendues, de formation et migration professionnelle, de reconversion économique régionale, etc., telles qu’elles ont été prévues par les accords de Copenhague et qui relèvent plus largement du deuxième pilier de la PAC, ainsi que des fonds structurels et de cohésion accordés aux PECO après leur adhésion.

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La subsidiarité est-elle possible dans la grande distribution ?

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur soutient que la grande subsidiarité peut être un espace où s’exerce la subsidiarité. Il développe cette analyse en présentant le groupement des Mousquetaires : sa structuration, sa philosophie et ses modalités de fonctionnement, en tant que tissu de petites entreprises mais aussi en tant qu’ensemble d’individus qui s’engagent à prendre une partie de l’entreprise commune, chacun à leur niveau. Dans un second temps, l’auteur illustre l’action spécifique conduite en milieu rural, à travers des exemples concrets.




Le mot « ensemble » caractérise bien les membres du groupement des Mousquetaires, dont je suis. Que l’on soit Intermarché, Bricomarché, Ecomarché ou Vêtimarché, nous sommes tous propriétaires de nos propres entreprises dirigées vers les consommateurs. Le groupement des Mousquetaires est un tissu de petites entreprises, beaucoup de Bricomarché ont moins de 10 salariés. Nous sommes très attachés à notre indépendance. […] Nous sommes convaincus que, pour rester indépendants, il faut regrouper nos forces pour gérer l’approvisionnement ou les services comme la logistique, l’informatique, les moyens publicitaires, la formation du personnel, les assurances. Pour s’approvisionner aux meilleures conditions en qualité et en prix, auprès d’entreprises ou de coopératives, nous avons créé nos filières communes.

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La situation démographique dans les nouveaux pays membres de l’Union Européenne

2004



Dans cet article, l’auteur analyse les données démographiques de l’élargissement de l’Union Européenne de 15 à 25 pays membres. En détaillant les différences entre les pays entrants et les 15 – conditions de vie, accroissement naturel, fécondité, flux migratoire -, il éclaire les enjeux d’un rassemblement certes historique, mais pas sans risque pour l’équilibre des territoires concernés et de leurs populations.




L’élargissement à 25, c’est l’Europe qui retrouve son histoire, l’Europe qui se réunit dans les racines de son identité commune. Mais, en même temps, le fait de se réunir, de se retrouver ensemble, c’est aussi supporter un certain nombre d’héritages. Il faut souhaiter un Printemps démographique pour l’Europe sinon, les phénomènes de dépopulation que nous constatons dans certains pays et dans certains territoires risquent de se produire, ce qui ne permettrait pas de construire une Europe de l’avenir.

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Le projet socio-politique du développement durable

2001



Après un bref retour sur l’apparition de la notion de développement durable, symptôme de l’émergence de la complexité du vivant, l’auteur propose quatre leviers pour considérer la gestion du vivant en bonne santé : une exigence de qualité totale, des modalités de prise en charge revisitées, le besoin de piloter la qualité, la nécessité de sécuriser les acteurs dans la prise d’initiative. En conclusion, le développement durable est un choix politique de société.




Je me souviens d’un […] philosophe [qui] nous disait qu’il y a des faits prospectifs, des signaux faibles que certains savent voir. A propos des signaux faibles, Chardin a écrit à son ami Huxley […] « je suis aussi pessimiste que vous pour 4 raisons » :

  • D’abord parce que pour maîtriser le vivant et l’homme, il faut agir sur toute l’humanité, or l’humanité est en train de devenir une. Nous sommes en 1951, et je me demande comment quelqu’un pourra prendre le pouvoir sur cette entité qui est en train de se construire.

  • Le deuxième point, je crois que vous faites erreur, ce ne sont pas les caractères exceptionnels qui poseront problème demain, ce sera la prise en charge des constantes de la base du vivant. Donc, ce n’est pas l’exceptionnel, c’est le quotidien qui va poser problème.

  • Ensuite troisième point, un système dans lequel il n’y a plus d’individus […] engendre cette société hautement complexe où chaque acteur va se trouver confronté aux conséquences de ces choix qui seront sans commune mesure avec les causes initiales. Cela veut dire que dans cette société hautement complexe, un acteur, un individu peut générer des phénomènes extraordinairement importants, des impacts non prévisibles. Je crois qu’il n’y a pas besoin de faire de dessin !

  • Et enfin, dernier point, la vision que nous avons de ce qui est important c’est le struggle for life de Darwin, soit c’est le plus fort qui gagne ! Dans cette société hautement complexe, ce sera le plus apte à l’action complexe qui gagnera !

C’est ce qui m’a inspiré dans mon chemin et c’est pour cela que j’ai fait de la biologie. Quand j’ai fait de la biologie, j’ai vu que personne ne posait de questions politiques, alors j’ai fait des sciences politiques et de l’économie et là personne ne se posait de questions du vivant. C’est donc par accident que je me suis retrouvé au Ministère de l’Agriculture pour traiter un problème qui m’était strictement personnel : la gestion du vivant en bonne santé. Beaucoup s’occupent du vivant malade et personne du vivant en bonne santé et encore plus au niveau de l’humanité ! J’ai progressivement été amené à voir qu’un énorme problème se posait, et c’est de cette question dont je vais vous parler. Je vais vous en parler autour de la notion de développement durable.

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Urbains, ruraux en Ile-de-France : construire la coexistence

2001



En rappelant les spécificités régionales du lien ville-campagne, l’auteur partage différentes expériences conduites en Ile-de-France qui témoignent des enjeux, des perspectives et des pistes d’amélioration des liens entre développement urbain et développement rural.




En Ile-de-France […] les problèmes de relations entre les urbains et les ruraux sont une question d’actualité, une question forte qui est posée à notre région, dont on oublie souvent que plus de 50% de son espace est rural, qu’elle nourrit plusieurs milliers d’agriculteurs, qu’elle entraîne dans son sillage tous les acteurs de la filière, et qu’elle représente une part significative de notre Produit Intérieur Brut. Nous sommes aussi dans une région où l’urbanisation incontrôlée a mangé des espaces !

La Région, qui a en charge la conception de l’aménagement du territoire régional, a désormais un devoir, non pas d’assistance mais d’accompagnement à ce mouvement et, si possible, de redressement de ce mouvement. […] Nous avons une expérience très riche et je pense relativement innovante en Ile-de-France sur les rapports entre urbanisation et ruralité.

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