Tribune Ruralité

2021

Relance économique, pouvoir d’achat, lien social et urgence climatique sont autant de sujets de préoccupation des Français qui animent la campagne de l’élection présidentielle de 2022. A la manière d’un électrochoc, la crise sanitaire COVID exacerbe les inquiétudes mais aussi révèle des potentiels et accélère les prises de conscience. Parmi celles-ci, émerge la nécessaire reconquête de la souveraineté française, qui s’exprime notamment parla relocalisation de la production et la relance de la dynamique économique et entrepreneuriale des territoires.

Manifeste pour des ruralités vivantes

2021

Ce manifeste pour des ruralités vivantes avance différentes propositions d’évolution. Organisations professionnelles, associations, administrations, élus nationaux et locaux et citoyens doivent s’en saisir.

Ce manifeste est proposé par la FNSEA – Fédération Nationale des Syndicats d’Exploitants Agricoles avec 36 cosignataires.

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Les piliers du devenir des territoires en Europe

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours de clôture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur souligne les trois piliers indissociables pour réfléchir le devenir des territoires européens : l’agriculture, le rural, la relation de l’homme au territoire.




Il y a trois piliers qui sont indissociables à la réflexion et sur lesquels je me permettrai de dire quelques mots : l’agriculture, le rural, et le territoire. Je ne veux pas les confondre. Ce serait rendre un mauvais service aux trois, mais je voudrais vous dire qu’ils sont indissociables et qu’il ne peut pas y avoir de développement rural sans agriculteurs.
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Place de la ruralité et de l’agriculture dans la société française

2010



Dans cet extrait du discours d’ouverture des 20èmes Assises de Sol et Civilisation, l’auteur propose un diagnostic des lignes de tension qui marquent la société française : l’érudit versus le citoyen, les responsabilités individuelles et collectives, l’homme consommateur et l’homme acteur… Il invite à trouver de nouvelles relations en phase avec la recherche de sens de bien vivre qui caractérise une société de plus en plus immatérielle.




Quelle est la place d’une ruralité sans paysans, d’une agriculture sans agriculteurs ? Quelles sont les nouvelles solidarités ?

Nous allons devoir faire face à des bouleversements complets de la société : c’est évidemment dans l’immédiat la crise financière, mais c’est aussi le basculement démographique qui va complètement changer le rapport entre personnes âgées et personnes jeunes, c’est aussi le défi alimentaire sur lequel nous reviendrons, les bouleversements de caractères idéologiques, car plus l’avenir est incertain, plus les tentations sont fortes de se réfugier dans des intégrismes protecteurs et dans des oppositions de pensées.

Paradoxalement, au moment où nous n’avons jamais eu accès à autant de connaissances, il n’y a jamais eu autant d’incertitudes par rapport à l’avenir et autant de résistances par rapport au progrès. Les réflexes des peuples n’étant pas toujours salutaires, nous pourrions constater des replis identitaires, des replis idéologiques, des replis territoriaux complètement suicidaires, soutenus par des votes démocratiques. Il est vrai que ce sont des réflexes de survie, mais la notion de survie peut quelquefois faire en sorte que celui qui est en train de se noyer frappe celui qui est en train de le sauver.

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L’Etat, le marché, la communauté : comment améliorer la gestion de l’eau ?

2010



L’article fait le point sur quelques enseignements du projet de thèse de Didier CHRISTIN. A la lumière de ses travaux, l’auteur défriche quelques points structurants du paradigme de la gestion de l’eau et nous invite à repenser les binômes « Etat-marché », « liberté-contrainte » si l’on souhaite effectivement améliorer la qualité globale de l’eau.




Ces dernières décennies, deux grandes approches ont très largement dominées les politiques de l’eau : le marché et l’Etat. Pour les tenants de la première approche, « le marché », la privatisation des ressources en eau devait permettre une gestion durable de celles-ci, du fait des vertus attribuées au « marché », de la régulation attendue de celui-ci par adéquation entre les offres et les demandes en eau. Pour les tenants de la seconde approche, « l’Etat », l’appropriation par la puissance publique des ressources en eau allait assurer – par la définition et la mise en place de normes, de règles, de lois, de techniques aussi, s’appliquant à tous et en tout lieu – une gestion durable de l’eau.

Quelle place pour la « société » dans les politiques issues de ces deux grandes approches ?

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L’énergie renouvelable au coeur du développement d’un territoire rural, l’exemple du Mené

2010



Cet article fait le point sur les initiatives et les projets portés par les acteurs du territoire du Mené qu’ont présenté Dominique ROCABOY et Jacky AIGNEL lors des Assises 2007 de Sol et Civilisation. Il dégage les différentes innovations dont les acteurs ont fait preuve pour mener à bien ces projets. Ces innovations sont au coeur du projet de territoire et sont révélatrices d’un territoire vivant et ouvert.




Situé au centre du triangle formé par les axes Rennes à Brest, Saint Brieuc à Vannes et Rennes à Quimper, le territoire du Mené a une superficie de 163,2 km² soit à titre de comparaison 50% plus étendue que la ville de Paris pour une population de 6309 habitants. Le Mené est en effet un territoire rural caractérisé par le poids prépondérant de l’activité agricole et un habitat très dispersé. Dans les années 60, les transformations agricoles et le vieillissement de la population ont entraîné le territoire dans un cercle vicieux ; déprise de l’activité agricole, pertes de population et d’actifs, moindre attractivité.

Face à cette situation, les élus et citoyens du territoire ont cherché à inverser la tendance et tenté de promouvoir leur territoire à travers des projets dont la portée et le cadre transcendent les filières et les compétences établies. Il s’agissait de faire émerger les projets dont peuvent s’emparer l’ensemble des acteurs du territoire pour construire un avenir commun. Ces projets se sont lentement montés au fil des 40 dernières années notamment dans le secteur culturel et économique. Ce temps a aussi permis aux habitants de s’emparer des problématiques du territoire et de s’y investir. Le territoire est ainsi passé par de nombreuses étapes pour maintenant s’inscrire dans une logique de développement durable et d’équilibre énergétique.

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L’agriculture, le renversement anthropologique

2012



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose un examen synthétique de la place du monde agricole et rurale dans la société française. Il pointe aussi un paradoxe du regard sur l’agriculture contemporaine : « alors que le secteur d’activité le plus ancien devait être réduit à l’essentiel et se faire oublier, il devient au contraire le symbole de l’altérité à retrouver ».




La distinction est apparemment simple ; le sol renvoie à la nature, la civilisation à la culture. Sauf que dans l’histoire de l’humanité, le sol a aussi toujours été une culture et finalement une civilisation. Et le paradoxe est que le XXIème siècle verra le grand retour de la civilisation du sol et de toutes les cultures qui y sont liées, par opposition au modèle urbain du XXème siècle. Non seulement parce que le déséquilibre ville-campagne est disproportionné et qu’il faudra bien le rééquilibrer au profit des campagnes, mais aussi parce que la population de 8 à 10 milliards d’individus obligera à revaloriser dans un monde ouvert et tout petit l’importance de l’agriculture et de la nature comme dimension économique, anthropologique et culturelle. C’est cela le grand renversement anthropologique : la question du sol, de l’agriculture, de la nature, est la nouvelle frontière de la civilisation technique des systèmes d’information triomphants.
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Finance et éthique, quelle articulation ?

2012



Dans son article, l’auteur tente de reposer les règles de la finance pour en retrouver le sens notamment dans un objectif de développement des territoires.« Finance » et « éthique », rarement deux termes ont été aussi dissonants. Si la finance est utile, il convient donc d’en fixer les règles et le cadre pour qu’elle soit au service du bien commun.




Le seul plan Paulson mobilisé aux Etats-Unis pour sauver le système financier à l’automne 2008 a mobilisé 700 milliards de dollars, soit bien plus que la totalité de la dette publique grecque fin 2011. La crise financière des subprimes a provoqué à elle-seule la perte de leur logement pour 2,5 millions de ménages américains. Faut-il ajouter à cela les pratiques extravagantes, en matière de rémunérations ou d’ingénierie financière, les spéculations visant à déstabiliser des devises, des défaillances flagrantes dans le contrôle par les banques mêmes de leurs traders et générant des pertes astronomiques (Société Générale, Affaire Kerviel ou plus récemment les méfaits de la « Baleine de Londres » chez J.P.Morgan) ? Bref, la finance semble à mille lieux de comportements compatibles avec une certaine morale des affaires.

L’éthique renvoie en effet à la morale. Les deux termes sont d’ailleurs synonymes, même si l’un est de racine grecque (Ethos) quand l’autre est de racine latine (mores). Mais il ne faudrait pas pour autant jeter le bébé avec l’eau du bain. La finance est utile et le développement formidable des économies développées au cours du dernier siècle est étroitement corrélé avec le développement de la sphère financière. Ce n’est pas un simple lien statistique, mais bien d’une relation de causalité dont il s’agit. La sphère financière a pour vocation de faire transiter l’épargne des ménages vers les entreprises pour que ces dernières investissent au service du développement collectif. C’est par le jeu de la « transformation » des échéances que la finance permet de concilier la liquidité des ménages à court terme et l’investissement productif à moyen et long terme. Naturellement, cette transformation, condition nécessaire au financement de l’économie, est potentiellement instable, et doit être réalisée en confiance. Que la méfiance s’installe et les créanciers rapatrient leur épargne, générant une crise de liquidité. La mondialisation des échanges financiers transforme cette crise de liquidité en crise systémique majeure ; c’est la crise de 2008 dont nous ne finissons pas de payer la note.

Si la finance est utile, il convient donc d’en fixer les règles et le cadre pour qu’elle soit au service du bien commun. C’est de cette articulation dont il est question ici. Vouloir une finance sans risque est une illusion. Par nature, la sphère financière est porteuse d’un risque d’illiquidité. Eliminer tout risque financier reviendrait à proscrire banques et marchés. Or l’angélisme ne crée pas de valeur ni de richesse. A l’inverse, ne pas réguler la finance reviendrait à accepter une forme de barbarie libérale. Il s’agit donc collectivement de situer le curseur entre deux extrêmes : une finance dérégulée avec son dynamisme et la certitude de connaître des crises graves à répétition ; une finance anémiée, sans risque, mais sans croissance ni développement. Où situer le curseur ? C’est à cette question que nous tentons de répondre maintenant.

Une finance éthique : critère de discernement

La question du discernement d’une finance éthique est difficile. Les critères de discernement sont en effet multiples. Sans entrer dans un débat qui exigerait de longs développements, on peut schématiquement considérer que deux réponses sont possibles.

Premièrement, on peut assigner à la régulation financière un objectif de stabilité. Considérant que l’instabilité financière que nous connaissons depuis 2008 est une cause majeure de la crise sans précédent que nous connaissons actuellement, avec ses dimensions économiques, sociales, et politiques, l’objectif de stabilité semble alors un minimum à atteindre. De facto, certains – et l’auteur de ces lignes en est -, considèrent que la stabilité financière est un bien public. Une institution privée seule ne peut produire ou garantir la stabilité financière ; en revanche, une banque privée (pensons à Lehman Brothers) peut détruire cette stabilité. Cela justifie une régulation appropriée des banques, des marchés, de la finance internationale et la mise en place des instances idoines pour mettre en œuvre les processus décidés collectivement si possible dans un cadre démocratique.

Mais on peut aller plus loin. Au-delà de cet objectif de stabilité financière qui est un minimum, on peut souhaiter une régulation financière qui soit « juste ». Cela pose naturellement la question de la définition de la justice. Dans cette perspective, et sans balayer l’ensemble des théories économiques de la justice, on peut plaider pour que soit considérée avec attention la théorie des « capacités » développée par le Prix Nobel Indien Amartya SEN. Ce grand économiste propose que la « justice » soit évaluée sur une base informationnelle particulière, à savoir les « capacités » ou libertés réelles dont disposent les individus ou agents économiques. Par liberté réelle, Sen entend la liberté négative (au sens de « ne pas être empêché de ») et la liberté positive (au sens de « être en capacité de »). Transposée à la question large de la régulation financière, ce critère devrait guider le régulateur vers l’objectif d’une finance qui serait au service du développement, maximisant la « capacité » de financement de l’investissement.

Un système bancaire au service du développement des territoires

Doté d’un critère de discernement, nous sommes en mesure d’esquisser ce que serait une finance juste au service du développement des territoires. Nous souhaitons ici insister sur le modèle bancaire à privilégier.

Les territoires sont vivifiés par les petites entreprises, par les entrepreneurs individuels, par les artisans, les exploitants agricoles qui s’y installent et y développent une activité créatrice d’emplois et, par les externalités positives qu’ils exercent sur les politiques menées par les collectivités territoriales qui accompagnent ce développement, lequel profite à l’ensemble de la collectivité. Il est donc primordial que ces agents économiques « producteurs » puissent trouver à financer leur développement. Ainsi que le disait fort justement Amartya SEN, « si vous ne pouvez obtenir du crédit, vous ne serez jamais le grand entrepreneur que vous auriez pu être ».

Or, l’évolution du système bancaire et de son « business model » a éloigné sérieusement les banques d’un objectif premier de financement des PME. Plusieurs raisons à cela : premièrement, les évolutions réglementaires ont favorisé cette mutation du modèle bancaire. En particulier, les banques ont pu développer d’autres métiers, par exemple les métiers de l’assurance, réalisant ainsi des économies de gamme permettant de rentabiliser leur réseau. Deuxièmement, elles ont développé des activités de marché lucratives au sein de leurs banques de financement et d’investissement (BFI). Troisièmement, les mouvements de fusions et acquisitions au sein de l’industrie bancaire, légitimés par la recherche d’économies d’échelle, ont complexifié les structures organisationnelles, et corrélativement ont abouti à standardiser les processus décisionnels en matière de crédit. Le résultat de ce dernier mouvement est que le modèle bancaire, initialement relationnel, est devenu plus transactionnel, accordant moins de poids à l’ancienneté de la relation entre la banque et son client, et en revanche un poids croissant à la situation financière du débiteur à la date de la demande, situation appréciée essentiellement sur base de critères quantitatifs (qu’on pense ici aux modèles de « credit scoring »). Le résultat de cette mutation du modèle bancaire est que les banques sont aujourd’hui moins adaptées au financement des PME et des agents économiques les plus fragiles et qu’en revanche elles ont des incitations fortes à développer des activités de BFI très lucratives.

Comment esquisser le profil d’un système bancaire qui se fixerait comme objectif premier de maximiser la « capacité » de financement des acteurs économiques au sein des territoires ? Nous plaidons ici pour une régulation qui favoriserait des banques de taille modeste, des banques mutualistes et des banques développant un modèle relationnel accordant un poids essentiel à la pérennité de la relation avec le client.

  • des banques de taille modeste présentent deux avantages. Elles sont susceptibles de faire faillite, ce qui suffira à ce que leurs actionnaires et dirigeants soient mesurés dans leur prise de risque. Une taille modeste limite en effet « l’aléa moral » connu sous le nom de « too big to fail effect ». Elles ont aussi dans leur clientèle une part plus importante de PME, ce qui est en phase avec notre objectif de maximisation des « capacités » de financement des firmes les plus fragiles.

  • des banques mutualistes :non soumises à la pression des marchés financiers, elles ont la possibilité de mettre en œuvre une stratégie de long terme, alors que des marchés court-termistes exigent souvent des banques cotées une rentabilité sur fonds propres que ne saurait assurer l’activité de prêt aux PME. Propriétés des sociétaires, les banques mutualistes visent un objectif sociétal plus large que la seule maximisation de la valeur actionnariale qui caractérise les banques à statut de SA.

  • des banques relationnelles présentent deux avantages. D’une part, en accordant un poids essentiel à la relation construite avec le client, avec ses effets positifs en termes de connaissance du débiteur, de sa stratégie, de son projet, de ses qualités –toutes choses que des systèmes automatisés de « credit scoring » ne peuvent considérer à leur juste valeur-, les banques relationnelles sont connues pour être les mieux profilées pour accompagner les acteurs les plus fragiles des territoires, artisans, PME, entrepreneurs individuels, collectivités, dans leur développement. D’autre part, en visant le développement d’une relation gagnant-gagnant avec leurs clients, ces banques les aident à surmonter les situations de stress financier, fréquentes en période de basse conjoncture.

En conclusion, oui la finance peut être éthique. La régulation de la sphère financière peut limiter une expansion déraisonnable et la contraindre à viser un objectif de justice sociale plus exigeant que le seul objectif de stabilité financière. En particulier, nous avons esquissé le contour d’un modèle bancaire qui viserait la maximisation des « capacités » de financements des acteurs des territoires. Au-delà de cette problématique complexe de la régulation du système financier, reste posée la question des comportements individuels. Le fardeau de la dette publique que nous laissons aux générations futures peut être vu comme l’accumulation des créances nettes que chacun croit devoir détenir sur la société et le pays. Renverser la perspective et passer d’une société de créanciers à une société de débiteurs où chacun se demanderait ce qu’il peut apporter au collectif est le challenge à relever : le programme éducatif d’une génération.

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Finances et territoires

2012



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur revient sur le lien entre finance et territoire, sujet de préoccupation majeure ces dernières années.Depuis la crise des subprimes en 2007 et la faillite de Lehman Brothers en 2008, les crises s’enchaînent par rebonds successifs, toujours plus importantes, toujours plus violentes, des marchés aux banques, des banques aux Etats, des Etats aux sociétés.

Or, la finance est nécessaire à l’économie pour, notamment, fournir de la trésorerie couvrir les risques, financer le capital de départ. Alors peut il y avoir d’autres chemins possibles ? Sommes nous définitivement montés dans un train lancé à grande vitesse, désormais sans réel conducteur, et qui nous dirige vers un précipice ?




Le lien entre finance et territoire est devenu un sujet de préoccupation majeure ces dernières années. Depuis la crise des subprimes en 2007 et la faillite de Lehman Brothers en 2008, les crises s’enchaînent par rebonds successifs, toujours plus importantes, toujours plus violentes, des marchés aux banques, des banques aux États, des États aux sociétés. Il faut bien l’avouer, la plupart d’entre nous découvrent une machine devenue infernale : une finance satellisée par rapport au monde réel ; on parle désormais d’un rapport de 1 à 10 entre l’économie financière et l’économie réelle.

L’effroi est d’autant plus fort que les solutions apportées semblent chaque fois insuffisantes ou timorées : nous assistons à un enchainement des plans de sauvetage en Europe sans forcément voir le bout du tunnel et au-delà des discours, on peut effectivement s’interroger sur notre capacité à réguler la finance à l’échelle mondiale.

Dans ce contexte, les territoires, en particulier les territoires ruraux, risquent bien d’être emportés par ses ouragans financiers. D’abord, peut-être, parce que la ressource « terre » devenant une denrée rare sur notre planète, ils pourraient devenir des actifs attractifs pour les spéculations financières. 221 millions d’hectares de terres auraient déjà été acquis par des fonds d’investissement depuis 2011 soit 15 % de la surface cultivée dans le monde. Ensuite parce que les marchés agricoles financiarisés fragilise globalement l’économie agricole. Ayons pour exemple ce chiffre en tête, 200 fois la production annuelle de blé s’échangerait aujourd’hui sur les marchés financiers. Enfin, parce que, pour rester compétitive, les activités économiques chercheront à s’agglomérer pour trouver des économies d’échelle ou chercher des synergies, bref à aller dans les métropoles urbaines.

Or, la finance est nécessaire à l’économie pour, entre autres, fournir de la trésorerie, couvrir les risques, financer le capital de départ. Alors peut-il y avoir d’autres chemins possibles ? Sommes-nous définitivement montés dans un train lancé à grande vitesse, désormais sans réel conducteur, et qui nous dirige vers un précipice ?

Avec ce premier éditorial en tant que nouvelle Présidente de Sol e Civilisation, je souhaite également remercier de nouveau Michel Ledru qui, tout au long des 8 dernières années, a eu le sage souci de garder notre association ouverte aux hommes et aux idées.

Notre projet conserve dès lors toute son acuité : être un lieu indépendant de rencontres, de réflexions et d’intervention pour promouvoir et faciliter, depuis les milieux ruraux, un développement fondé sur le rôle de l’homme acteur des territoires et gestionnaire du vivant.

Dans ces temps de crises, ces moments où tout change, il convient de voir le monde différemment pour créer du nouveau.

Je reste convaincue que Sol et Civilisation, à son échelle, y contribuera.

Je vous souhaite une bonne lecture.

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Pour une approche stratégique du bien commun

1998



Dans cet article, l’auteur propose d’appréhender la prise en charge des biens communs, tels que la gestion du vivant, avec de nouvelles approches qui visent à organiser la négociation autour des attentes multiples des acteurs concernés.




Un certain nombre de signaux montrent que notre façon d’agir ensemble nous rend incapables de traiter certaines réalités. Nous ne savons pas gérer la qualité des eaux souterraines en Alsace, ni la qualité de l’eau d’un bassin versant. Nous ne savons agir que par la contrainte, par l’interdiction. Mais chacun a de telles marges de liberté et de non implication vis-à-vis d’une norme, quelle qu’elle soft, que ce système de contraintes peut être parfaitement inefficace pour gérer des réalités comme la qualité de l’eau, la qualité de la vie. Les acteurs ne s’impliquent que s’ils en ont envie dans une action qu’ils jugent légitime et efficace. Ainsi, dans le secteur des entreprises, la gestion de la qualité a évolué. Il y a 30 ans, la demande de produits était telle qu’une entreprise pouvait être un « offreur systématique » et imposer aux clients sa conception de la qualité. Les gens étaient contents d’avoir une 2 CV, même s’il fallait attendre 3 ans. Par la suite, un autre équilibre entre l’offre et la demande s’est établi. Les consommateurs ont alors voulu une amélioration du produit. Puis de nouveaux acteurs se sont imposés dans la conception de la qualité du produit : les salariés, les écologistes étudiant l’impact de l’entreprise sur l’environnement, l’actionnaire se demandant si le profit serait durable, etc.

L’entreprise, d’acteur strictement productif, est aujourd’hui tenue de devenir beaucoup plus stratégique. Elle doit mobiliser ses hommes. Elle ne peut plus avoir 5% de gens « intelligents » et 95% « d’exécutants ». Elle a besoin de l’intelligence de tous. Et cette intelligence ne se libère que par la libre adhésion. La mobiliser suppose énormément de savoir, de précautions. La qualité s’impose aujourd’hui comme un bien commun qui requiert une approche stratégique.

Les territoires sont l’objet d’offres et de demandes de qualité. Pour Henry Ollagnon, on ne peut vraiment négocier que lorsqu’on est à la fois offreur et demandeur de qualité. Si le monde rural n’est que le lieu d’un marchandage entre zones et fonctions, il sera dépouillé parce qu’il ne représente que 10% de la population. Si par contre, chacun se sent à la fois offreur et demandeur d’une qualité, par exemple de la santé humaine et de l’épanouissement de l’homme, alors des négociations peuvent s’engager. C’est ce qui se passe en Haut Béarn ou à Olmanie (Biélorussie).

Pour engager ce processus, on peut mobiliser les ressorts patrimoniaux que chacun a en lui. Si à l’intérieur de l’entreprise, il n’y a pas un minimum d’intérêt commun, si le salarié ne se sent pas acteur du succès financier de l’entreprise, on ne pourra ni en parler avec lui, ni mobiliser son adhésion.

Engager de telles négociations nécessite une approche stratégique. Nous avons cru que nous pourrions prendre tous les problèmes en charge dans le cadre privé ou dans le cadre public. Mais certains éléments ne peuvent être gérés dans leur globalité ni dans l’un, ni dans l’autre cadre. L’administration doit administrer sous régulation politique, les chefs d’entreprises doivent travailler dans le cadre de la propriété privée. Par contre, d’autres enjeux, qui relèvent du bien commun comme la gestion du vivant nécessitent d’engager des négociations stratégiques dans un cadre contractuel nouveau.

Henry Ollagnon conclut : « nous constatons l’émergence de nouvelles attentes stratégiques à satisfaire. Il faut donc construire un juste équilibre entre les modes de négociation classique et ceux de la négociation coopérative. Cela suppose la mise en place de nouvelles approches, la création de nouveaux métiers pour traiter les problèmes du vivant. Des outils existent pour cela ».

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