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Préserver les lieux où peut se créer le lien social

1997



Dans cet article, l’auteur distingue trois niveaux pour prendre en charge le développement des milieux ruraux : la commune comme lieu de vie, la communauté de communes comme lieu de coopération, le territoire comme espace de projet commun.




Depuis 40 ans, l’administration centrale essaie, par divers moyens, de réduire fortement le nombre de communes dans notre pays. 36 000 communes, pour elle, c’est un non sens, d’où cet acharnement, direct ou indirect, par la voie législative, administrative ou financière à vouloir imposer une autre voie. Le schéma national d’aménagement du territoire devant être remis sur le métier, il paraît utile de préciser quelques lignes de réflexion de fond. Ma réflexion est davantage orientée sur le milieu rural, où les orientations à venir auront le plus d’incidence. Il est nécessaire de distinguer trois niveaux de responsabilité qui interfèrent et s’inscrivent sur des territoires pertinents :

  • la communauté de vie : la commune

  • la communauté de gestion : la coopération intercommunale

  • la communauté de projet : le Pays.

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La subsidiarité, base de la démocratie

2000



Dans cet article, l’auteur s’inquiète du manque de subsidiarité dans le développement de notre société alors qu’à ses yeux, ce principe est essentiel pour un développement local réussi, incontournable pour poursuivre la construction européenne, et indispensable pour faire émerger un développement mondial cohérent et équilibre…




Nos démocraties représentatives traversent une mauvaise passe. Leur pouvoir de décision est érodé par la mondialisation de la finance et de l’économie. L’idéologie néolibérale dominante les considère comme des systèmes lourds et dépassés, incapables de s’adapter aux nécessités de l’instant et aux virtualités du futur. […]

A cela s’ajoute, dans notre pays, une trop vieille tradition centralisatrice qui imprègne non seulement les rouages de l’Etat mais aussi ceux de maintes organisations privées et même d’entreprises. Elle conduit à prendre des décisions « d’en haut », en négligeant les savoir-faire, le dynamisme, la capacité d’entreprendre et d’exercer des responsabilités de ceux « d’en bas ».

Comment, dès lors, s’étonner que bon nombre de nos concitoyens se désintéressent du vivre ensemble, de la démocratie et jouent la carte du tout individuel, du repli sur soi ? […]

On peut cependant, percevoir des signes montrant que les femmes et les hommes d’aujourd’hui ne se désintéressent pas tous de ce qui se passe dans nos sociétés. Ainsi l’intervention des organisations non gouvernementales au sommet de l’OMC à Seattle, et cela malgré leurs dissonances. Ou encore le refus massif des consommateurs européens de se voir imposer par des firmes multinationales, sans informations sûres et accessibles, des produits alimentaires contenant des organismes génétiquement modifiés.

Cependant, ces fronts du refus, même puissants et organisés, ne peuvent, à eux seuls, suffire à inverser le fonctionnement de nos sociétés. Il faut pour cela réhabiliter et rénover le politique en s’appuyant sur le principe remis à l’ordre du jour par Jacques Delors lorsqu’il était président de la Commission européenne, celui de la subsidiarité.

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L’audit patrimonial

1996



Présentation succincte de la démarche d’audit patrimonial




L’audit patrimonial appliqué au développement rural est un outil qui permet une approche « clinique » de la prise en charge d’un territoire par ses habitants. La notion de patrimoine est ici prise au sens large.

L’audit patrimonial est une démarche de diagnostic et de prospective réalisée en commun par tous les acteurs concernés par un problème. En effet, il permet d’établir une communication entre toutes les personnes directement ou indirectement impliquées pour faire ensemble le diagnostic et l’expertise de la qualité de leur milieu de vie, au cours d’entretiens reposant sur une grille d’analyse comportant quatre registres :

  • Identification des problèmes : quel(s) problème(s) ? quels acteurs concernés ?

  • Diagnostic de l’action engagée : quels sont les acteurs engagés dans la résolution du problème ? quelles réponses ont jusque là été apportées ? quel bilan provisoire peut-on dresser ?

  • Prospective et enjeux : évolution des problèmes et des réponses, dans le temps et dans l’espace, établissement de trois scénarii (positif, tendanciel, négatif).

  • propositions d’Action : propositions techniques et relationnelles, chemins de changement envisageables, engagement de chacun ?

L’évaluation de l’audit patrimonial se mesure à l’engagement qu’il a suscité chez les personnes qui ont été auditées.

L’audit patrimonial réalisé en Ségala Limargue a bénéficié du concours des étudiants de l’Agro Paris-Grignon (AgroParisTech) et de Sol et Civilisation, très intéressée par la découverte et l’expérimentation de cette démarche novatrice.

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Des démarches de gestion en commun pour une démocratie réelle et vivante

1999



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur propose de remettre le lien entre les hommes au cœur du projet de société, d’où l’importance de replacer les hommes, citoyens, élus ou chefs d’entreprise, en condition d’exercer leurs responsabilités vis-à-vis de la communauté…




La France va mieux nous disent les médias : le moral des ménages et leur tendance à consommer sont en hausse ! Mais, sur une part croissante du territoire, l’insécurité se développe, le nombre de suicides de jeunes ne cesse d’augmenter, le cortège des exclus économiques, des exclus scolaires grossit. Les actes de violence se multiplient, tout comme les procès en tout genre et à tout propos qui font de tout détenteur d’une parcelle de responsabilité un coupable potentiel de n’importe quel incident.

Sommes-nous vraiment incapables de prendre conscience que notre société évolue vers une forme déjà connue pour avoir généré ailleurs ce type de symptômes ? Est-ce vraiment cela que nous voulons ou ne sommes-nous capables que de la subir ?

Tout concourt à rompre les liens directs entre les hommes et c’est là la source du mal : les familles sont éparpillées, l’extrême spécialisation et donc le fractionnement caractérisent les activités professionnelles, le poids croissant des procédures cantonne les acteurs des territoires dans une dépendance vis à vis d’en hautes. La rationalité administrative se substitue partout au bon sens et à l’expérience de vie des hommes. La mort annoncée des communes n’en est-elle pas une illustration patente ? Comment oser parler de démocratie lorsqu’on en supprime la forme d’expression la plus basique et que se dilue la responsabilité des individus vis-à-vis de la communauté ? Aurait-on oublié que toute personne doit pouvoir s’assumer personnellement et se responsabiliser pour vivre en société ?

Il nous paraît essentiel de mettre en évidence qu’il n’y a pas de fatalité, qu’il y a aussi d’autres voies que celle des solutions techniques à des problèmes qui ne le sont pas.

Ce numéro 11 de la Lettre vous présente des démarches qui visent à replacer les hommes, en tant que citoyens, élus ou chefs d’entreprise, en condition d’exercer leurs responsabilités vis à vis de la communauté ; en se mettant en position de négocier et de construire ensemble leur avenir, ils réussissent ce que ni chacun, ni l’Etat ne peut réaliser seul.

Je suis certain que c’est en facilitant ces démarches de gestion en bien commun, en libérant les énergies des hommes, que la facture sociale que tous déplorent sans jamais imaginer une autre solution que technique, se résorbera. C’est ainsi que nous recréerons les bases d’une démocratie réelle et vivante dans notre pays.

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Sol et Civilisation, des lieux de réflexion à la fois sociologique, économique et politique

1996



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur expose les fondements qui le conduisent à proposer de faire de l’association Sol et Civilisation un espace d’interrogation, de réflexion et de débat sur les équilibres d’une société française en crise. En crise au sein du monde rural. En crise au sein du monde urbain. En crise dans la rupture du dialogue et de la connaissance entre les milieux urbains et ruraux…




La société française, comme beaucoup de sociétés industrialisées, vit sous le signe d’une triple rupture : rupture interne du milieu rural avec des zones équilibrées économiquement et socialement et d’autres, nombreuses, en voie de dépérissement, rupture interne du milieu urbain matérialisée par l’éclatement entre les centres-villes et les banlieues qui deviennent souvent des ghettos d’exclusion, et rupture du dialogue et de la connaissance entre milieux ruraux et milieux urbains.

Pour redonner chance à la société française, il faut une forte volonté de rééquilibrage pour effacer ces trois ruptures et favoriser une harmonie entre tous les territoires et entre tous les hommes. Cessons de penser qu’il y a opposition entre les milieux ruraux et les milieux urbains. Chacun a sa mission. Le territoire est un tout et c’est en tant que tel que nous devons réapprendre à le gérer. Milieux ruraux et milieux urbains doivent se nourrir les uns des autres, par un dialogue constructif. Nous devons à tout prix empêcher la disparation du dialogue économique et culturel entre ces deux pans de notre territoire.

La France a la chance d’avoir, contrairement à beaucoup d’autres pays européens, un immense espace rural. Il est absurde de vouloir concentrer les activités et les hommes sur quelques super-métropoles qui coûtent des sommes colossales en infrastructures diverses, sans compter les inconvénients multiples sur le plan humain, social et culturel.

L’avenir de la société dépend de la participation de chacun et de tous à son élaboration. Chacun doit avoir sa place dans le débat. Nous devons trouver les moyens pour que l’expression des hommes, de leurs volontés refasse surface. La place de l’homme, de sa responsabilité, de son rôle social et convivial doit revenir au centre du débat.

C’est sur ces bases qu’une réflexion de fond à la fois sociologique, économique et politique est engagée au sein de l’association Sol et Civilisation depuis 4 ans. Des groupes de réflexion réunissent des personnes de différents horizons socioprofessionnels, de tous bords politiques, urbains et ruraux. Leur objectif est de redonner à l’homme sa place dans nos sociétés. Leurs propositions sont réalistes puisque passées au crible de la réalité, des expérimenterons de terrain.

Sol et Civilisation s’est également fixé comme objet d’interroger l’opinion publique, les socioprofessionnels et les décideurs politiques. Je forme le voeu que cette lettre de Sol et Civilisation dont voici le premier numéro, soit le lieu de cette interrogation, mais aussi un lieu de débat. Aussi, nous vous engageons à nous faire part de vos réactions, de vos idées, de vos expériences.

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Discours du Dimanche des Terres de France

1991



Dans ce discours de clôture du Dimanche des Terres de France, l’auteur expose les fondements de la vision qu’il souhaite porter à travers la promotion du développement des territoires ruraux, en particulier en créant par la suite l’association Sol et Civilisation.




Aujourd’hui toute la France rurale s’est mise en marche !

Nous avons gagné notre pari !

Artisans, commerçants, salariés, professions libérales, agriculteurs, vous avez quitté vos ateliers, vos magasins, vos fermes, vous avez répondu massivement à notre appel.

Vous êtes venus à la rencontre de la population parisienne pour lui dire que la France rurale veut vivre, que ses hommes et ses valeurs sont indispensables à l’équilibre économique et social de la France. Vous avez expliqué aux citadins que cette nature harmonieuse et accueillante dont ils ont de plus en plus besoin n’est pas un don du ciel, mais le fruit du labeur quotidien des hommes. Vous avez ébranlé les murailles du mépris et de l’indifférence qui laissent mourir nos entreprises et dépérir des zones entières de notre pays. Vous êtes venus à ce rendez-vous historique des Terres de France : grâce à vous le grain de l’espérance a pu être semé !

Le monde rural veut vivre !

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Crise du vivant et stratégies de prise en charge de la qualité commune

2000



Dans son éditorial, l’auteur s’inquiète de la montée des crises du vivant qui annoncent un défi majeur pour nos sociétés : élaborer des stratégies communes pour prendre charge la qualité du vivant par et avec l’ensemble des acteurs concernés, agriculteurs bien sûr, mais aussi acteurs de filière, consommateurs etc.




Une fois encore, les gros titres des journaux se font l’écho de notre incapacité à gérer le vivant de manière satisfaisante : vache folle, listériose, marée noire, qualité de l’eau, etc. J’ai noté deux types de réactions : d’une part, la volonté d’améliorer la connaissance scientifique des phénomènes en jeu, ce qui me semble tout à fait légitime bien qu’insuffisant et, d’autre part, la recherche d’un bouc-émissaire à qui on appliquerait des normes de plus en plus drastiques.

L’agriculteur, gestionnaire du vivant que je suis, sait bien que les choses ne sont malheureusement pas aussi simples. Il est clair qu’abaisser le taux de listéria acceptable dans un pot de rillettes ne suffira pas à prévenir les décès dus à la listériose. Il faut bien sûr que des normes de qualité s’appliquent à l’éleveur, à l’abatteur, au producteur de rillettes, au transporteur, au commerçant, au fabricant de réfrigérateurs. Mais il faut aussi que le consommateur ne rompe pas la chaîne du froid et nettoie son frigo régulièrement. Il faut que chacun des acteurs de la filière assume ses responsabilités. Complexe !

Par ailleurs, le maître mot dans ce type de crise est la confiance. Pour recréer de la confiance, l’interdiction, le répressif ne suffisent pas. Tous les acteurs concernés doivent s’accorder sur une stratégie de qualité commune, prise en charge par chacun. C’est là que cela devient réellement compliqué, car il ne s’agit pas que de technique, mais d’humain. Mettre en œuvre de telles stratégies appelle des comportements nouveaux qui doivent s’inscrire dans le temps et des méthodes nouvelles.

Sol et Civilisation s’attache depuis deux ans à caractériser et à promouvoir ces démarches et ces méthodes. Pour cela, elle réunit régulièrement des acteurs de divers secteurs d’activités, concernés par ce type de problèmes liés au vivant. Ce numéro 15 de la Lettre se fait l’écho d’une de ces journées de travail. Qu’il s’agisse de la gestion d’un territoire comme la Chartreuse, de grandes entreprises ou de la filière bois, des démarches nouvelles émergent. Elles méritent d’être mises en lumière car elles sont, à mon sens, porteuses d’espoir. Elles nous permettront de gérer des crises de gestion du vivant, qui ne vont pas manquer de se multiplier, témoin la pollution au cyanure du Danube !

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Politiques territoriales et complémentarités des villes et campagnes

1998



Dans cet éditorial, l’auteur rappelle son souhait de voir les acteurs ruraux pleinement acteurs du développement rural et des complémentarités entre villes et campagnes. Une vision peu compatible avec l’approche urbaine de l’aménagement du territoire, qui guide l’évolution des politiques publiques.




Notre pays a bien du mal à retrouver le sens et les bases fondamentales d’une vraie politique d’aménagement de son territoire. Après la récente loi « Pasqua » de 1995 qui avait suscité un large débat sur tout le territoire, le nouveau gouvernement veut aussi sa loi sur « le développement durable du territoire ».

L’axe central des propos de Madame Voynet dans les premiers textes en préparation met l’urbain, la ville, au centre, comme moteur de la gestion du territoire. « C’est par la ville qu’on féconde les espaces ruraux ». Cette orientation de départ doit être revue sur le fond. Les grandes agglomérations sont en panne, les difficultés et les tensions s’y accumulent. Elles ne sont plus forcément la modernité d’hier mais plutôt le repoussoir pour beaucoup. Les grandes villes implosent sous les coups d’une surconcentration anarchique. Certains espaces ruraux souffrent d’anémie, les villes d’obésité. Combien de temps une tête qui ne cesse d’enfler peut-elle survivre à un corps atrophié ? Il faut donc corriger ce qui devient insupportable. Il faut revenir à l’essentiel, aux fondements. Comment réanimer, se réapproprier, irriguer l’ensemble du sol national ? Comment créer les conditions d’une répartition harmonieuse des hommes et des activités sur tout notre territoire ?

Une de nos chances françaises, c’est bien nos espaces, encore ouverts, entretenus et équipés par nos paysans, nos ruraux et nos élus locaux. Ils n’ont pas vocation à devenir des réserves naturelles ! Le débat véritable à ouvrir n’est pas de raisonner à partir de la ville ou de la campagne, d’opposer l’une à l’autre, mais au contraire de mettre en réseau les complémentarités, les richesses qui peuvent fleurir, dans une harmonie nouvelle du rural à la ville, de la ville à la campagne. Comment tous nos terroirs peuvent-ils se féconder, s’enrichir les uns les autres par des rapports fructueux entre ruraux et urbains ?

Pour cela l’engagement des populations locales et le respect de leur champ de responsabilité sont essentiels. Par le développement local territorial on multiplie les initiatives, on responsabilise les bonnes volontés, on dynamise la création d’activités et d’entreprises diverses. Cette démarche ascendante est essentielle ; elle doit être relayée et confortée par une volonté nationale et européenne des pouvoirs publics et des organisations nationales multiples pour favoriser et améliorer ce redéploiement sur l’ensemble du territoire. Pas de développement local durable sans volonté nationale et européenne qui organise les solidarités, donne un sens à cette prise de conscience commune entre « les gens d’en bas » et « les gens d’en haut ». C’est bien cela la démocratie : favoriser et encourager ce jeu complexe d’acteurs qui joignent leurs efforts pour permettre le bien commun général.

Ce numéro de notre lettre vous présente une expérience de terrain qui témoigne, sur un thème d’actualité, l’emploi, de la puissance créative des acteurs locaux dès lors qu’ils se retrouvent et élaborent par eux-mêmes des solutions à leurs problèmes communs.

Nos assises nationales du 24 septembre prochain, annoncées aussi par ces feuilles, permettront une confrontation sur ces thèmes. Plus que jamais la nécessité d’une mobilisation générale pour se réapproprier tout notre territoire s’impose à tous. Ne partons pas dans une mauvaise direction.

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La relation de l’homme à son espace : une des clefs d’un développement durable

2001



Dans ce discours, l’auteur rappelle les fondements de la création de Sol et Civilisation dont le cœur des préoccupations est de questionner la relation de l’homme à son espace, comme une des clefs d’un développement durable qui permet de rétablir des équilibres.




Mes chers amis, je suis particulièrement heureux d’ouvrir ces 10èmes assises de Sol et Civilisation en vous accueillant tous, et en vous remerciant très chaleureusement d’avoir pris quelques heures pour débattre d’un sujet d’actualité.

Je voudrais en profiter, si vous le permettez, pour vous rappeler que cela fait maintenant dix ans, nous avons lancé des équipes de réflexion autour de Sol et Civilisation. C’était après la grande manifestation qui a eu lieu le 29 septembre 1991, à Paris, où 300 000 paysans et ruraux ont réussi à interpeller la France entière en disant : « nous sommes encore là, nous pouvons rendre service à la société mais nous vous avertissons quand même qu’il est temps de réagir et de faire en sorte qu’il y ait une autre façon de réfléchir sur le monde paysan et le monde rural dans notre société française ».

Après cette grande manifestation, avec un certain nombre d’amis, notamment : Gérard de CAFFARELLI, Jean DUPUIS, dont je salue ici la mémoire,  qui a écrit un livre posthume « l’Aubergiste oublié » que je vous recommande très fortement, nous avons pensé qu’il serait peut être utile de créer une association nationale qui, à son humble niveau, pourrait réunir, ici ou là, tous les hommes de bonne volonté qui se préoccupent de l’avenir de notre société et qui essayent, aujourd’hui, de réfléchir aux équilibres nouveaux à trouver. Le 8 octobre 1991, dans un hôtel de la région parisienne, s’est déroulée une réunion d’une cinquantaine de personnes, venant de divers horizons, qui ont accepté de porter les fondements de cette association nationale que nous appelons Sol et Civilisation.

Je voulais rappeler simplement que lorsque nous avons, ensemble, réfléchi aux fondements de cette association, nous avions deux ou trois idées fortes qui, à mon avis, restent très présentes dans nos débats de société et qui, hélas, nous sont rappelées par l’actualité des événements que nous avons vécus aux États-Unis et à Toulouse.

La première est qu’il faut que l’on revienne à cette idée centrale qui est bien celle de replacer l’homme au centre des débats, de tous les débats ! L’homme, sa responsabilité, sa dignité, ses initiatives, ses rapports à autrui et au monde qui l’entoure : L’homme et la communauté doivent commander ensemble et avoir la possibilité de construire ces communautés successives qui permettront aux générations futures de s’y retrouver. L’homme, respecté en tant que personne, quelles que soient ses origines, sa race, sa philosophie et sa religion : l’homme au centre des débats.

La deuxième découle de la première : il faut essayer de retrouver une harmonie et un équilibre, une complémentarité astucieuse entre les divers milieux qui composent notre société. Dès le départ, nous avons dit que c’était le paysan qui était au cœur du débat, qu’il était l’homme des territoires et que c’est autour de lui que les milieux devaient se développer et s’activer. Les gens des villes devaient se retrouver ensuite autour de ce triptyque : paysans ruraux et urbains, pour faire en sorte qu’ensemble, en harmonie, on puisse retrouver un nouvel équilibre.

La troisième idée, c’est finalement faire en sorte que tous ces fondamentaux, homme, communauté, milieux, qui composent la société se retrouvent harmonieusement au sein de la planète, entre les continents. Travailler pour qu’ils essayent, ensemble, de cohabiter, de vivre et de réaliser leur devenir. Autrement dit, nous avions déjà lancé les idées fortes que nous appelons aujourd’hui la globalisation, la mondialisation, avec toutes ses dérives que vous connaissez aussi bien que moi.

Aujourd’hui, ces trois idées fondamentales que je viens de rappeler sont toujours au cœur de nos préoccupations et, finalement, nous ont amenées à réfléchir à ce problème qui est la relation de l’homme à son espace pour marquer nos 10 ans. Parce que nous pensons que c’est une des clefs d’un développement durable qui permet de rétablir des équilibres. C’est pour cela que nous avons, aujourd’hui, organisé cette journée et décidé de faire appel à toutes les compétences et les bonnes volontés.

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